Article

Diagnóstico del Estrés en Peces

Veterinaria Mexico 01/1999;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Se presenta una revisión del estrés ambiental y sus diferentes tipos, observados en los peces; por ejemplo el estrés social debido a las altas densidades de población que se manejan en acuicultura intensiva; estrés físico, causado por cambios en la temperatura, oxígeno y pH del agua; estrés químico, debido a contaminantes endógenos y exógenos; estrés físico, debido a traumatismos; y estrés nutricional, por deficiencias o excesos de algún nutrimento en la dieta. También se describen los métodos actuales para dignosticarlos, entre ellos: indicadores moleculares y bioquímicos como la medición de aductores estables de ADN, medición de receptores de hormonas esteroides, medición de metalothioneínas y medición de la peroxidación lipídica. La metodología bioquímica hormonal mide las respuestas endocrinas secundarias al estrés, como la hipersecreción de catecolaminas o niveles de cortisol plasmático, propiomelanocortina y concentración de glucosa plasmática. Para el estrés por calor se cuenta con métodos de medición de las proteínas del choque de calor. Algunos parámetros reproductivos se utilizan para medir también el estrés. Se describe un método computarizado no invasivo, así como la metodología histopatológica que se basa en la observación de células de rodlet y las modificaciones en tamaño y forma de algunas células.

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