Article

Procesos de inferencia y aprendizaje de relaciones causales en el condicionamiento de segundo orden

Psicológica 01/2007;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron en primer lugar, demostrar la fiabilidad y las condiciones necesarias del condicionamiento de segundo orden (CSO) en tareas de aprendizaje causal (Experimento 1); en segundo lugar, mostrar que la extinción de la relación causal de primer orden, no produce el mismo efecto de extinción en la relación causal de segundo orden (Experimento 2). Las aportaciones de este estudio fueron por un lado, que durante la fase de extinción de la causa de primer orden, se conservó el nivel de excitación en la condición de control; y por otro, que en la fase de prueba se evaluaba el efecto de la extinción no sólo sobre las claves de segundo orden, sino también sobre todas las de primer orden, extinguidas o no. Los resultados comprobaron que la extinción y ruptura de la relación causal de primer orden, no genera la extinción de la relación de segundo orden (CSO) una vez establecida, aunque sí produjo una atenuación de la fuerza de dicha relación causal. El conjunto de resultados es fácil de explicar desde los mismos modelos asociativos utilizados para explicar dicho efecto (CSO) en condicionamiento animal, basados en el aprendizaje de relaciones independientes entre estímulos condicionados y estímulos incondicionados. De manera similar y desde una perspectiva cognitiva, los resultados sugieren que el individuo durante el proceso de aprendizaje del CSO no forma relaciones causales encadenadas, sino más bien relaciones relativamente independientes entre cada causa y sus efectos.

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