Article

Nursing students´ vaccination state and knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination

NURE Investigacion 01/2006;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Among health workers Hepatitis B is the most frequent occupational infection, and vaccination is the most effective way of preventing it. Risk of this infection is accentuated among student nurses, and we therefore sought to assess this population’s knowledge of Hepatitis B and the possibility of vaccination against it. To this end, we surveyed a total of 256 student nurses, using a questionnaire in which they were asked a series of questions addressing general aspects of Hepatitis B, knowledge of vaccines, and number of students immunized. Among the data gathered, mention should be made of the fact that students were generally aware that Hepatitis B was a parenterally and sexually transmitted disease, yet almost half of those surveyed failed to appreciate the professional danger of Hepatitis B vis-à-vis other types of hepatitis. In general, they were ignorant of the significance of serological markers. Moreover, a high percentage did not perceive Hepatitis B as an occupational disease.Only 52.7% of all interviewees were conversant with all the guidelines to be followed in the event of needle stick and, according to the results of survey, as few as 4.7% adopted adequate measures to prevent infection. Insofar as risk of infection was concerned, half of those surveyed considered that this was high among health professionals, yet only 49.6% considered that there was a high risk of infection in their practical classes despite the fact that 44.6% had already experienced one or more accidental exposures during such sessions. Most students were aware of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine and regarded it as essential. A total of 86.7% of students had been appropriately vaccinated. Solely a minority replied that vaccination eliminated all risk of infection.

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    ABSTRACT: FUNDAMENTO: La vacuna recombinante contra la hepatitis B confiere inmunidad aproximadamente en el 95 % de los casos, pero existe un porcentaje que responde insuficientemente. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los factores que se asocian con una inadecuada respuesta inmunitaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio observacional y analítico en el que se sigue retrospectivamente una cohorte de sujetos vacunados frente al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). Se recogieron las variables de interés del personal sanitario que cumplía los criterios de inclusión, del Área de Salud 9 de la Comunidad Valenciana (n=827). Tras la vacunación se determinó la titulación de anticuerpos de superficie (antiHBs) para comprobar la respuesta, considerándose niveles protectores los superiores a 10 mUI/ml. RESULTADOS: Se produjo una adecuada seroconversión en el 94,4% de los vacunados. La baja o nula respuesta a la vacuna se asoció significativamente y de forma independiente con variables como el sexo masculino, la edad, el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y el tabaquismo. El consumo de alcohol y los niveles de GPT, aunque no se relacionaron de forma significativa con la respuesta a la vacuna, actuaron como posibles factores de confusión. CONCLUSIONES: La inmunogenicidad de la vacuna es satisfactoria. Es importante cuantificar los niveles de antiHBs, sobretodo cuando hay factores predictivos de mala respuesta. De esta manera, es posible identificar a aquellos que precisan dosis de recuerdo y a los no respondedores, evitándose así situaciones de falsa sensación de protección frente al VHB.
    Revista Española de Salud Pública 01/1998; · 0.71 Impact Factor

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