Feasibility study of water purification using vertical porous concrete filter

International journal of Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 1.79). 09/2007; DOI: 10.1007/BF03325987
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Cheapest and simplest techniques of filtration systems are required for rural water treatment in developing countries. Using a filter made of blocks for the water treatment enables us to make porous concrete filter and use it vertically. It is expected that the required area would decrease by more than 70 % if porous concrete filters were used vertically. The operation and backwash mode would be simpler than using horizontal sand filters as filters made of blocks would be used instead. The feasibility study focused on finding adequate materials, compositions and methods of making a block with enough resistance to water pressure, sufficient porosity for water transformation and using inexpensive and available materials. A pilot study was performed to determine an appropriate thickness of filter. Testing the porous filter in another pilot study using the low overflow rate of river water showed biological growth in that media and an adequate efficiency of about 90-100 % was obtained for decreasing the coliform bacteria. The required backwash water was 2.9 % of total treated water.


Available from: Ali Torabian, Apr 19, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Excessive growth of biomass and retention of solids associated with air bubbles lead to bed clogging, which affects the biofilters’ performance. Two experiments were carried out in a submerged biofilter at the flow velocity of 0.5 m h−1, for an organic loading rate of 51 g C m−3 h−1 and a nitrogen loading rate of 13 g NH4-N m−3 h−1, one with the biofilter not aerated, the other with the biofilter partially aerated. The results showed that the higher head losses occurred in the upper section of the biofilter, where there was a greater biomass development and a higher removal of organic carbon, ammonia and solids, with the maximum allowed head loss being reached in 16 and 8 days. In any case, the steady-state conditions were achieved after 2 days and were interrupted on the tenth day of experiment E1 and on the fifth day of experiment E2. This allowed defining different operating cycles that enabled an average organic removal rate of 12.7 g C m−3 h−1 (27 %) and an average ammonia removal rate of 1.1 g NH4-N m−3 h−1 (9 %) without aeration, and of 35.8 g C m−3 h−1 (76 %) and 6.3 g NH4-N m−3 h−1 (51 %) with aeration. Regardless of the aeration conditions, more than 90 % of TOC and NH4-N removal occurred in the upper section. After the backwashing cycle, the biofilter returned to steady-state conditions in 6 h (without aeration) and 7 h (with aeration).
    International journal of Environmental Science and Technology 07/2012; 9(3):395-408. DOI:10.1007/s13762-012-0073-3 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ____________________________________________________________________ Effectiveness of geothermal paving systems (permeable pavements integrated with geothermal heat pumps) for urban runoff treatment, photocatalytic disinfection, renewable energy applications, and artificial neural networks for stormwater management.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the work, the process of the water purification in its passage through disperse systems with different particle size or through ceramics with different pore size is considered. Prospects of using large-scale waste such as cullet, packing material (polystyrene spherical particles), worked-out aerobic/anaerobic bacteria (biomass), carbonized material of coco (shells and coirs) for the preparation of filtering materials is shown. A method of rapid analysis of the degree of water purification from solid particles and dyes, namely, laser monitoring, is proposed. It is based on the effect of absorption of light by an aqueous medium containing solid and dissolved impurities.