Article

Biomecánica de la técnica de lanzamiento de disco. Influencia de la trayectoria del disco en la velocidad de liberación. Biomechanics of discus throw technique. The influence of the discus path on the velocity of release.

RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte 01/2006; DOI: 10.5232/ricyde2006.00505
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la influencia de la trayectoria del disco, durante las dos últimas fases del lanzamiento, en su velocidad de liberación. Se analizaron 25 lanzamientos pertenecientes a 8 hombres y 5 mujeres, seleccionados por la Real Federación Española de Atletismo, que participaron en 5 competiciones. Se realizó un análisis cinemático tridimensional utilizando cámaras de cine de alta velocidad (100Hz). Las imágenes y los datos se trataron utilizando Fotogram-IBV y las variables biomecánicas de eficacia de latécnica se obtuvieron mediante la rutina de cálculo Biodisc.Para estudiar las asociaciones entre variables se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Las variables altura máxima del disco (DISCOmax) e incremento de la alturaentre la mínima y la de liberación (∆h_DISCOmin-DISCOlib) guardan correlación significativa con la velocidad vertical del disco en el momento de la liberación (VvDISCOlib) mientras que la altura mínima del disco (hDISCOmin) fue significativa para mujeres y la altura en el instante de liberación(hDISCOlib) lo fue para hombres, sugiriendo diferente estrategia para la consecución de la altura del disco necesaria para el vuelo. El ángulo del hombro derecho (Θ_HOMBd) se halló relacionado con hDISCO max, hDISCO min y hDISCO lib mientras que el ángulo de la rodilla derecha(Θ_RODd) se relacionó con un descenso del disco, necesario en mujeres, para aumentar el recorrido de aceleración. Por otro lado, ciertos aspectos técnicos utilizados por los entrenadores para la enseñanza y corrección de la técnica de sus atletas tienen una evidencia científica, por lo que se aconseja sean observados sistemáticamente.
Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of discus path on its release velocity during the last two phases of throwing event. It were analyzed 25 throwing belong to 8 men and 5 women selected for Royal Spanish Athletics Federation, in 5 competitions. It was made a 3D kinematic analysis using high velocity cinematographic cameras (100Hz). The images and data were treated using Fotogram-IBV software and the biomechanics variables were obtain using Biodisc® calculus routine. In order to study the association between variables it was applied Pearson correlation coefficient. The variables maximum discus height (hDISCOmax) and difference of height between the maximum value and the one in the release (Δh_DISCOmin-DISCOlib) were significative with the vertical discus velocity at release (VvDISCOlib). Minimum discus height (hDISCOmin) was significative with VvDISCOlib for women and discus height at release (hDISCOlib) was significative for men, suggesting different strategy for getting the necessary height for the discus flight. The right shoulder angle (Θ_HOMBd) was correlated with hDISCOmax, hDISCOmin and hDISCOlib, while right knee angle (Θ_RODd) was correlated with decrease of discus height, necessary for women, to increase the discus acceleration path. On the other side, some technical instructions from trainer to athletes have a scientific evidence and it’s recommended to be systematically observed.

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