Article

Escherichia coli enteropatógena (EPEC): Una causa frecuente de diarrea infantil

Salud en Tabasco 01/2003;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Escherichia coli enteropatógena (EPEC, por sus siglas eninglés) es una bacteria que infecta principalmente a niñosmenores de dos años provocando diarreas de diversosgrados. EPEC utiliza una variedad de factores de virulenciapara causar el daño mediante un mecanismo complejo. Anivel intestinal induce una alteración histopatológicaconocida como la lesión A/E (adherencia y esfacelamiento)que se caracteriza por la degeneración de lasmicrovellosidades del enterocito. La lesión se induceprincipalmente por la acumulación de la actina intracelularen la región apical de la célula, justo por debajo de la bacte-ria adherida, este desarreglo que sufre el citoesqueletoparece formar una estructura tipo pedestal. La diarreasecretoria causada por EPEC está relacionada con la salidamasiva de iones, lo cual parece ser una consecuencia deldesarreglo del citoesqueleto, la destrucción de lasmicrovellosidades y la secreción de alguna enterotoxina.

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    ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a leading cause of human infantile diarrhoea, is the prototype for a family of intestinal bacterial pathogens that induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on host cells. A/E lesions are characterized by localized effacement of the brush border of enterocytes, intimate bacterial attachment and pedestal formation beneath the adherent bacteria. As a result of some recent breakthrough discoveries, EPEC has now emerged as a fascinating paradigm for the study of host-pathogen interactions and cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur at the host cell membrane. EPEC uses a type III secretion machinery to attach to epithelial cells, translocating its own receptor for intimate attachment, Tir, into the host cell, which then binds to intimin on the bacterial surface. Studies of EPEC-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements have begun to provide clues as to the mechanisms used by this pathogen to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton and signalling pathways. These findings have unravelled new ways by which pathogenic bacteria exploit host processes from the cell surface and have shed new light on how EPEC might cause diarrhoea.
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) mediates diarrhea remain a mystery. Recently a number of interesting and at times surprising results have come from studying EPEC interactions with host cells. Identification and characterization of bacterial factors, including Tir, EspA, EspB and EspD, and host responses have expanded our grasp of the diverse effects of EPEC on host cells.
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    ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) may be considered a paradigm for a multistage interaction between pathogen and host cell. EPEC strains produce a type IV pilus that is associated with initial adherence to host cells, and these strains possess a type III secretion apparatus that is necessary for transducing signals to host cells. Secretion of three Esp proteins is required for activation of a phosphotyrosine-containing receptor that allows EPEC to bind intimately to host cells via the bacterial outer membrane protein intimin. Intimately attached bacteria rest upon a pedestal composed of host cytoskeletal proteins in an arrangement recognized as the attaching and effacing phenotype. The precise molecular interactions that lead to these dramatic alterations in the host cell cytoskeleton remain to be elucidated.
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