Control biológico por aumento en moscas de la fruta (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Folia entomologica Mexicana 01/2004;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT La creciente preocupación de la comunidad internacional por la contaminación ambiental, la pérdida de la biodiversidad y el deterioro paulatino de los ecosistemas, promueve la búsqueda de alternativas en el manejo de plagas que estén soportadas en principios bioracionales con mínimos efectos colaterales. Las moscas de la fruta se consideran entre las plagas de mayor importancia comercial y cuarentenaria a nivel internacional, por lo que para su control se establecen programas fitosanitarios a gran escala. Esta situación ubica al control biológico por aumento como una estrategia que puede complementar algunos requerimientos en materia de protección al medio ambiente que actualmente demanda el combate de estas plagas. En este trabajo se presenta una síntesis literaria sobre las características del control biológico aumentativo y de los antecedentes que se tienen de este tipo de control contra moscas de la fruta, de donde se desprende que dos de las especies de parasitoides con mayor potencial para establecer programas de esta naturaleza son Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) y Fopius arisanus (Sonan). La historia natural de estas dos especies, sus características como enemigos naturales de moscas de la fruta, así como las implicaciones de costos que tienen su cría masiva dependiendo de los niveles de producción que se requieran, son analizadas. Varios autores concluyen que el control biológico por aumento en moscas de la fruta puede ser integrado con otros métodos de combate, lo que refuerza la propuesta de que bajo determinadas condiciones ecológicas y sociales, este tipo de control puede ser una herramienta convenientemente elegible.

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