Composición nutricional y características fermentativas del ensilaje de maní forrajero
ABSTRACT Mediante la técnica de microsilos, se determinó el efecto de la edad de rebrote (8 y 12 semanas), de la deshidratación parcial (con oreo y sin este) y de la adición de melaza (0, 3, y 6%) sobre las características fermentativas y el valor nutritivo del ensilaje de maní forrajero de 2 ecotipos (CIAT 17434 Y CIAT 18744). Se ensiló 1 kg de material en cada bolsa, para un total de 24 tratamientos, con 5 repeticiones. El proceso de ensilado se prolongó por 45 días. Los valores de materia seca fueron afectados significativamente por la frecuencia de corta, el oreo y la adición de melaza, no así por el ecotipo ensilado (p=0,08). En cambio, el ecotipo y la frecuencia de corta afectaron el contenido de proteína cruda (p<0,0001). Los contenidos de fibra detergente neutro y fibra detergente ácida fueron afectados significativamente por los 4 efectos principales. El valor de pH, al igual que la concentración de ácidos acético, butírico y láctico, variaron significativamente en respuesta a la adición de melaza y el oreo, no así por la edad de rebrote y el ecotipo ensilado; en cambio, la capacidad buffer fue alterada por los efectos principales (p<0,0001). El contenido de nitrógeno amoniacal varió por efecto del contenido de melaza, edad de rebrote y ecotipo ensilado, no así por el oreo (p<0,621). El tratamiento que obtuvo los mejores parámetros de calidad nutricional y fermentativos fue el ensilaje del ecotipo 17434, con una edad de rebrote de 8 semanas, sin oreo, y con la aplicación de 6% de melaza.
- Grass and Forage Science 04/2006; 34(1):1 - 10. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of the inclusion rate of legume and use of molasses or ground maize as additives on the chemical composition of grass- and maize-legume silages was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1 the effects of adding molasses or ground maize to star grass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) with or without legume (Desmodium uncinatum) at ensiling were studied. Four additive treatments (no additive, molasses, 50 and 100 g ground maize/kg fresh weight) were combined with four levels of legume (no legume, 150, 300 and 450 g/kg fresh weight) in a factorial arrangement of treatments. Sealed plastic bags containing about 15 kg of compressed material were used and each treatment was replicated three times. In experiment 2 the effect of adding graded levels of legume (D. uncinatum) to maize (Zea mays) at ensiling was studied in a completely randomised block design. Four levels of legume were used at ensiling: no legume, 150, 300 and 450 g/kg fresh weight. The same procedure as that used in experiment 1 was applied. All the grass silages were well fermented. Addition of ground maize and molasses increased the dry matter content of grass silage (P < 0.001). Molasses addition resulted in lower (P < 0.05) levels of volatile nitrogen and higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content compared to the control and the ground maize treatments. The inclusion of legume above 300 g/kg fresh weight raised the pH, volatile nitrogen and total nitrogen content of grass silages (P < 0.001). The increase in pH and volatile nitrogen content was less when the silages were treated with additive, especially molasses. All the maize silages were well fermented, with low pH and volatile nitrogen levels. Crude protein level was increased from 60 to 90 g/kg dry matter in the silage with no legume and at the highest level of legume (450 g/kg) respectively. The pH increased from 3.7 in silages with no legume to 4.2 when legume was added at the rate of 450 g/kg. The inclusion of D. uncinatum improved the quality of both grass and maize silages. However, the inclusion of legume above 300 g/kg fresh weight of grass silage would require the use of additives.Animal Feed Science and Technology - ANIM FEED SCI TECH. 01/1997; 68(3):295-305.
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ABSTRACT: The buffering capacity values of several herbage species and of silage made from this herbage, and the contributions of plant constituents to this buffering, between pH 4 and 6, were determined, and found to vary with the herbage species; values in the silages were normally two to three times greater than those in the plant materials. The anion fraction of the plant materials accounted for 68–80% of the total buffering capacity, and for 73–88% in the silages. Buffering caused by plant proteins was estimated to be 10–20% of the total buffering capacity.The buffering capacity of wilted red clover (Trifolium pratense) was 18% lower than that of fresh red clover, and the total organic acid content of wilted clover was also lower than that in fresh clover.The organic acids were responsible for most of the buffering effect in herbages and silages. In Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), the main buffers were malate and citrate, but, in red clover, glycerate and malate were the main buffers. The clovers studied contained a high level of glycerate (4% of dry matter). During ensilage, malate, citrate and glycerate were extensively broken down. The increased buffering capacity during ensilage was caused mainly by the formation of lactates and acetates.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 06/2006; 17(6):264 - 268. · 1.76 Impact Factor