Grounding Grids for High-Voltage Stations [includes discussion]

FELLOW AIEE, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Ill.
Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers Part III Power Apparatus and Systems 01/1953; 72(2). DOI: 10.1109/AIEEPAS.1953.4498704

ABSTRACT Grounding grids are used in high-voltage stations when rocky ground makes the use of driven ground rods impractical. The characteristics of grounding grids are investigated in this paper, and the results are applied to the basic design elements of this type of grounding system.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a brief review of the most important methods available for the grounding grid analysis. This includes numerical methods intended for the grounding grid direct current, time-harmonic current and transient current energization. Emphasis will be given to the methods involving transient grounding grid analysis. Available numerical methods will be surveyed according to the implemented soil model, e.g. homogenous soil, horizontally and vertically stratified multilayer soil as well as exceptionally heterogeneous soil. In that regard, various possible treatments of the boundary between soil layers are discussed. Here, image methods feature prominently in a solution to this problem. Whence, several possible image methods are reviewed. Additionally, numerical methods are surveyed according to the theoretical background approach. Here, one can make a clear distinction between circuit approach, transmission line approach, electromagnetic theory approach and hybrid approach. Numerical methods for the transient analysis of grounding grids are also reviewed in regards to the domain of the solution. Therefore, they could be regarded as frequency domain and time domain methods. Fast Fourier transform algorithm is seen as a conventional way of crossing between frequency and time domains. Major advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are pointed out as well.
    Software, Telecommunications & Computer Networks, 2009. SoftCOM 2009. 17th International Conference on; 10/2009
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    ABSTRACT: First Page of the Article
    IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems 05/1958;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of attaining low grounding resistances required in modern generating plant switchyards. A computerized procedure which considers up to three interacting ground grids is presented. This procedure establishes the minimum length of conductor required to attain a specified ground resistance. Mathematical justification of the minimizing procedure is included.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems 03/1981; PAS-100(3):1341-1350.