Tabalumab, a fully human IgG4 monoclonal antibody, neutralizes soluble and membrane-bound BAFF. The aim of this study was to examine the tolerability and efficacy of tabalumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate. Methods
In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, multiple-dose study, patients who were naive to biologic therapy received infusions of tabalumab (30, 60, or 160 mg) or placebo at weeks 0, 3, and 6 in combination with methotrexate and were evaluated for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients meeting American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (achieving an ACR20 response) at week 16. ResultsAt week 16, the percentages of patients achieving an ACR20 response in the 30-mg (57.6%), 60-mg (67.6%), and 160-mg (51.5%) groups were significantly greater than the percentage of patients achieving an ACR20 response in the placebo group (29.4%; P < 0.05). There were initial transient increases from baseline in the frequency of CD20+ and IgD+/CD27− B cells, followed by reductions, although B cells were not completely depleted. Also, the frequency of IgD−/CD27+ B cells increased in all tabalumab groups compared with the placebo group and returned toward baseline levels by the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was similar across all treatment groups; no deaths occurred. Serum IgM levels decreased significantly in all tabalumab groups combined compared with the placebo group. There were no significant decreases in serum IgG or IgA levels in the tabalumab groups compared with the placebo group. Conclusion
Tabalumab treatment significantly reduces the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and has a safety profile similar to that seen with placebo treatment.
"In patients with RA treated with multiple infusions of tabalumab, there was a transient increase in circulating B-cells followed by a reduction. The most sensitive population measured was naïve B-cells (CD20 + IgD + CD27−), with an approximate 60% reduction in circulating B-cells over the 24 week study.35 Curiously, there was an increase in circulating memory B-cells (CD20 + IgD-CD27+) for at least 16 weeks, however, they returned to baseline by the end of the study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is a B-cell survival factor with a key role in B-cell homeostasis and tolerance. Dysregulated BAFF expression may contribute to autoimmune diseases or B-cell malignancies via effects on abnormal B-lymphocyte activation, proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin secretion. Monoclonal antibodies were generated against human BAFF, characterized for species specificity and affinity, and screened for the ability to neutralize both membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. In addition, studies were undertaken to determine the relative potency of membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. Tabalumab has a high affinity for human, cynomolgus monkey, and rabbit BAFF. No binding to mouse BAFF was detected. Tabalumab was able to neutralize soluble human, cynomolgus monkey, or rabbit BAFF with equal potency. Our data demonstrate that membrane-bound BAFF can be a more potent stimulus for B-cells than soluble BAFF, and tabalumab also neutralized membrane-bound BAFF. Tabalumab prevented BAFF from binding to BAFF receptors and demonstrated pharmacodynamic effects in human BAFF transgenic mice. Tabalumab is a high-affinity human antibody with neutralizing activity against membrane-bound and soluble BAFF. Given our findings that membrane-bound BAFF can have greater in vitro potency than soluble BAFF, neutralization of both forms of BAFF is likely to be important for optimal therapeutic effect.
Journal of Inflammation Research 08/2014; 7:121-31. DOI:10.2147/JIR.S67751
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of review:
To highlight recent evidence from the clinical trials of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and non anti-TNF biologics for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) focused on comparative clinical efficacy including safety outcomes and medication discontinuation.
Patients with RA are sometimes able to attain low disease activity or remission since the introduction of biologic therapy for RA. Biologics like anti-TNF, anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-CD20 and those that modulate T-cell co-stimulation have consistently shown good efficacy in patients with RA. Preliminary data from comparative efficacy studies to evaluate the potential differences between anti-TNF and non anti-TNF biologics have shown little differences among these. There is ongoing work in comparative efficacy to answer this question further.
Biologic therapy in RA has significantly changed the course of RA in the last decade. Recently published clinical trials have been focused on comparative efficacy, cardiovascular safety of biologics and potential anti-TNF therapy discontinuation in patients with RA.
Current opinion in rheumatology 03/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1097/BOR.0b013e32835fc62e · 4.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BAFF system plays a key role in the development of autoimmunity, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This often leads to the assumption that BAFF is mostly a B cell factor with a specific role in autoimmunity. Focus on BAFF and autoimmunity, driven by pharmaceutical successes with the recent approval of a novel targeted therapy Belimumab, has relegated other potential roles of BAFF to the background. Far from being SLE-specific, the BAFF system has a much broader relevance in infection, cancer and allergy. In this review, we provide the latest views on additional roles of the BAFF system in health and diseases, as well as an update on BAFF and autoimmunity, with particular focus on current clinical trials.
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