Risk of Suicidal Behavior With Antidepressants in Bipolar and Unipolar Disorders
ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the risk of suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and deaths) associated with antidepressants in participants with bipolar I, bipolar II, and unipolar major depressive disorders. Design: A 27-year longitudinal (1981-2008) observational study of mood disorders (Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnoses based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and review of medical records) was used to evaluate antidepressants and risk for suicidal behavior. Mixed-effects logistic regression models examined propensity for antidepressant exposure. Mixed-effects survival models that were matched on the propensity score examined exposure status as a risk factor for time until suicidal behavior. Setting: Five US academic medical centers. Results: Analyses of 206 participants with bipolar I disorder revealed 2,010 exposure intervals (980 exposed to antidepressants; 1,030 unexposed); 139 participants with bipolar II disorder had 1,407 exposure intervals (694 exposed; 713 unexposed); and 361 participants with unipolar depressive disorder had 2,745 exposure intervals (1,328 exposed; 1,417 unexposed). Propensity score analyses confirmed that more severely ill participants were more likely to initiate antidepressant treatment. In mixed-effects survival analyses, those with bipolar I disorder had a significant reduction in risk of suicidal behavior by 54% (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31-0.69; t = -3.74; P < .001) during periods of antidepressant exposure compared to propensity-matched unexposed intervals. Similarly, the risk was reduced by 35% (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99; t = -2.01; P = .045) in bipolar II disorder. By contrast, there was no evidence of an increased or decreased risk with antidepressant exposure in unipolar disorder. Conclusions: Based on observational data adjusted for propensity to receive antidepressants, antidepressants may protect patients with bipolar disorders but not unipolar depressive disorder from suicidal behavior.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is associated with high mortality, and people with this disorder on average may die 10-20 years earlier than the general population. This excess and premature mortality continues to occur despite a large and expanding selection of treatment options dating back to lithium and now including anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and evidence-based psychotherapies. This review summarizes recent findings on mortality in bipolar disorder, with an emphasis on the role of suicide (accounting for about 15 % of deaths in this population) and cardiovascular disease (accounting for about 35-40 % of deaths). Recent care models and treatments incorporating active outreach, integrated mental and physical health care, and an emphasis on patient self-management have shown promise in reducing excess mortality in this population.Current Psychiatry Reports 11/2014; 16(11):499. DOI:10.1007/s11920-014-0499-z · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that concerning the prevalence of unipolar depression, females have almost double rates in comparison to males. However, this does not hold true concerning BD, for which similar rates between males and females are reported. There are some data suggesting that males might be over-represented in those diagnosed with a BD-I and females over-represented in those diagnosed with a BD-II disorder.Bipolar Disorder, 01/2015: pages 659-684; , ISBN: 978-3-642-37215-5