Exosomes from IL-1 beta stimulated synovial fibroblasts induce osteoarthritic changes in articular chondrocytes

Arthritis Research & Therapy (Impact Factor: 4.12). 08/2014; 16(4):R163. DOI: 10.1186/ar4679
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole joint disease, and characterized by progressive degradation of articular cartilage, synovial hyperplasia, bone remodeling and angiogenesis in various joint tissues. Exosomes are a type of microvesicles (MVs) that may play a role in tissue-tissue and cell-cell communication in homeostasis and diseases. We hypothesized that exosomes function in a novel regulatory network that contributes to OA pathogenesis and examined the function of exosomes in communication among joint tissue cells.

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    ABSTRACT: Astragalin, a bioactive component isolated from Rosa agrestis, has been described to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of astragalin on IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis chondrocyte. The production of NO and PGE2 was detected by Griess reaction and ELISA. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 was detected by western blotting. The expression of NF-κB and MAPKs was detected by western blot analysis. We found that astragalin dose-dependently inhibited IL-1β-induced NO and PGE2 production, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. Meanwhile, western blot analysis showed that astragalin inhibited IL-1β-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation in human osteoarthritis chondrocyte. In addition, astragalin was found to activate PPAR-γ. The inhibition of astragalin on IL-1β-induced NO and PGE2 production can be reversed by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Astragalin suppressed IL-1β-induced inflammatory mediators via activating PPAR-γ, which subsequently inhibited IL-1β-induced NF-κB and MAPK activation. Astragalin may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple mechanisms are implicated in the development of primary osteoarthritis (OA), in which genetic and epigenetic factors appear to interact with environmental factors and age to initiate the disease and stimulate its progression. Changes in expression of microRNAs (miRs) contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Numerous miRs are involved in cartilage development, homeostasis and degradation through targeting genes expressed in this tissue. An important regulator of gene expression in human cartilage is miR-140, which directly targets a gene coding aggrecanase ADAMTS-5, that cleaves aggrecan in cartilage. This miR is considered a biological marker for cartilage and its level significantly decreases in OA cartilage. On the other hand, increased expression of miR-146a in early OA inhibits two other cartilage-degrading enzymes: MMP13 and ADAMTS4, and may provide a useful tool in developing treatments for OA. The COL2A1 gene, encoding collagen type II, which is the most abundant structural protein of the cartilage, is silenced by miR-34a and activated by miR-675. Every year, new targets of cartilage miRs are validated experimentally and this opens new possibilities for new therapies that control joint destruction and stimulate cartilage repair. At the same time development of next-generation sequencing technologies allows to identify new miRs involved in cartilage biology.
    Current Genomics 12/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.2174/1389202915666141024212506 · 2.87 Impact Factor


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Nov 26, 2014