Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (Impact Factor: 3.68). 01/2006; DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-42
Source: DOAJ



The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight.


Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education.


At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months.


The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

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    ABSTRACT: Background:Obesity is the result of chronic positive energy balance. The mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy homeostasis and food intake are not understood. Despite large increases in fat mass (FM), recent evidence indicates that fat-free mass (FFM) rather than FM is positively associated with intake in humans.Methods:In 184 humans (73 F/111 M; age 34.5±8.8y; % body fat [PFAT] 31.6±8.1%) we investigated the relationship of FFM index (FFMI kg*m(2)), FM index (FMI kg*m(2);), and 24-h energy expenditure (EE, n=127) with ad-libitum food intake using a 3d vending machine paradigm. Mean daily calories (CAL), and macronutrient intake (PRO, CHO, FAT) were determined and used to calculate the relative caloric contribution of each (%PRO, %CHO, %FAT) and percent of caloric intake over weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN).Results:FFMI was positively associated with CAL (P<0.0001), PRO (P=0.0001), CHO (P=0.0075), and FAT (P<0.0001). This remained significant after adjusting for FMI. Total EE predicted CAL and macronutrient intake (all P<0.0001). FMI was positively associated with CAL (P=0.019), PRO (P=0.025) and FAT (P=0.0008). In models with both FFMI and FMI, FMI was negatively associated with CAL (P=0.019) and PRO (P=0.033). Both FFMI and FMI were negatively associated with %CHO and positively associated with %FAT (all P<0.001). EE and FFMI (adjusted for FMI) were positively (EE P=0.0085; FFMI P=0.0018) and FMI negatively (P=0.0018; adjusted for FFMI) associated with %WMEN.Conclusion:Food and macronutrient intake is predicted by FFMI and to a lesser degree by FMI. FFM and FM may have opposing effects on energy homeostasis.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 23 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.85.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 05/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2013.85 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aimsThe consumption of fried foods is believed to be linked with obesity and higher weight gain, however, the evidence from long-term randomized trials or prospective epidemiological studies is scarce. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the association between the consumption of fried foods and weight change and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort.Methods and resultsProspective cohort study of 9850 men and women with a mean age of 38.1 years (SD 11.4) were followed-up for a median of 6.1 years to assess average yearly change in body weight, and incidence of overweight/obesity. The consumption of fried foods was associated with higher weight gain, but the differences were of small magnitude and statistically non-significant. The incidence of overweight/obesity during follow-up was also assessed in the subset of 6821 participants with initial body mass index <25 kg/m2 (initially free of overweight/obesity), after adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio for developing overweight/obesity among participants who consumed fried foods >4 times/week was 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.73) in comparison with those who consumed fried foods <2 times/week (p for trend = 0.02).Conclusion In this Mediterranean prospective cohort, a more frequent consumption of fried foods at baseline was associated with a higher risk of subsequently developing overweight/obesity during follow-up.
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    ABSTRACT: Carry-outs are an important source of calorically dense foods in low-income urban neighborhoods. However, little is known about how customer body mass index (BMI) relates to purchasing behavior. A random sample of 184 adult carry-out customers was surveyed on frequency of visits, demographic information, and purchases made over the prior week at 8 carry-outs. This information was used to determine healthy food purchasing scores. BMI was negatively associated with purchasing a healthy side dish (β = −0.052, P = .025) and positively associated with purchasing a healthy drink (β = 0.051, P = .022), adjusting for age, sex, education, and employment. Based on these findings, efforts could be made to improve the food environment by increasing promotion of these healthier options.
    Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition 11/2013; 8(4):533. DOI:10.1080/19320248.2013.816985

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