Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of substance addiction
ABSTRACT Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method of brain stimulation used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, but is still in the early stages of study as addiction treatment. We identified 19 human studies using repetitive TMS (rTMS) to manipulate drug craving or use, which exposed a total of 316 adults to active rTMS. Nine studies involved tobacco, six alcohol, three cocaine, and one methamphetamine. The majority of studies targeted high-frequency (5–20 Hz; expected to stimulate neuronal activity) rTMS pulses to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Only five studies were controlled clinical trials: two of four nicotine trials found decreased cigarette smoking; the cocaine trial found decreased cocaine use. Many aspects of optimal treatment remain unknown, including rTMS parameters, duration of treatment, relationship to cue-induced craving, and concomitant treatment. The mechanisms of rTMS potential therapeutic action in treating addictions are poorly understood, but may involve increased dopamine and glutamate function in corticomesolimbic brain circuits and modulation of neural activity in brain circuits that mediate cognitive processes relevant to addiction, such as response inhibition, selective attention, and reactivity to drug-associated cues. rTMS treatment of addiction must be considered experimental at this time, but appears to have a promising future.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies in rodents have shown that withdrawal from chronic drug abuse is associated with a significant decrease in dopamine (DA) release in mesolimbic structures, especially in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens. Since the DA system is known to play an important role in reward processes, a withdrawal-associated impairment in mesolimbic DA-mediated transmission could possibly implicate reward deficit and thus enhance vulnerability to drug craving and relapse. We have previously demonstrated that acute repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a modulatory effect on DA release in several areas of the rat brain, including dorsal striatum, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the possible use of rTMS as a tool in re-establishing the dysregulated DA secretion observed during withdrawal in morphine-sensitized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we monitored the effects of acute rTMS (20 Hz) on the intra-accumbal release-patterns of DA in freely moving animals that were subjected to a morphine sensitization scheme for a period of 8 days. We provide first evidence that acute rTMS (20 Hz) is able to increase DA concentration in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens in both control animals and morphine-sensitized rats during abstinence. The DA release in morphine-sensitized rats was significantly higher than in controls. rTMS, therefore, might gain a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of dysphoric and anhedonic states during drug withdrawal in humans.Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2004; 29(11):2074-80. · 7.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a relatively noninvasive brain stimulation technology that can focally stimulate the human cortex. One significant limitation of much of the TMS research to date concerns the nature of the placebo or sham conditions used. When TMS pulses are delivered repetitively (especially prefrontal TMS), it is often experienced as painful. Most sham TMS techniques produce identical sounds to active TMS, but they do not cause much, if any, scalp or facial sensation or discomfort. This is a serious problem when investigators are attempting to evaluate the effects of TMS by using traditional sham techniques because of unintended systematic differences between real and sham TMS groups (ie, confounds). As long as traditional approaches to sham TMS are used, the validity of the inferences regarding the efficacy of TMS will be limited. Although some other sophisticated systems have been developed to address these concerns, they tend to be expensive and lack portability. Portability will likely become more and more important as TMS applications expand into different clinical areas (eg, TMS in the postanesthesia care unit after surgery). This study describes a portable electrical TMS sham system (eSham system) modeled after the James Long System that was designed to produce similar scalp sensations as real TMS. Preliminary results are presented on 9 healthy adults who received both real and eSham 10 Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS) (at 80%, 100%, and 120% of resting motor threshold) over the prefrontal cortex and rated the sensation quality (pain, tingling, sharpness, piercing, electric, tugging, pinching), tolerability, and location. Real TMS and eSham TMS were rated similarly across all seven sensory dimensions examined. Real and eSham TMS were also rated similarly with respect to tolerability and perceived location of the TMS-induced sensations. The eSham system may be a simple, affordable, and portable approach to providing convincing sham TMS for future clinical trials. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the use of the eSham system. Future larger-scale studies are warranted.Brain Stimulation 02/2008; 1(1):52-9. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare the ability of an H-coil and figure-8 coil to stimulate different motor cortex regions. The resting (rMT) and active (aMT) motor thresholds were measured for the right hand APB and leg AHB muscles in 10 subjects, using an H-coil and a figure-8 coil. The electric field distribution induced by the coils was measured in a head model. The combination of the hand and leg MTs with the field measurements was used to determine the depth of hand and leg motor areas via the intersection points. The rMT and aMT of both APB and AHB were significantly lower for the H-coil. The ratio and difference between the leg and hand rMT and aMT were significantly lower for the H-Coil. Electric field measurements revealed significantly more favorable depth profile and larger volume of stimulation for the H-coil. The averaged intersection for the APB was at a distance from coil of 1.83±0.54cm and at an intensity of 97.8±21.4V/m, while for the AHB it was at a distance of 2.73±0.44cm and at an intensity of 118.6±21.3V/m. The results suggest a more efficient activation of deeper motor cortical regions using the H-coil. The combined evaluation of MTs by H- and figure-8 coils allows measurement of the individual depth of different motor cortex regions. This could be helpful for optimizing stimulation parameters for TMS treatment.Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 08/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor