Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology (Impact Factor: 0.45). 03/2006; 49(2). DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000300016
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

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Available from: Eliane Ceccon, May 03, 2014
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    • "Esta morfología de raíz no sólo proporciona a E. americana una mejor capacidad de adaptación en zonas con baja disponibilidad de agua (típico del BTES, por un periodo de cuatro a seis meses al año), sino que también le proporciona ciertos beneficios para tolerar con éxito las zonas con baja fertilidad (Ceccon et al., 2006). Las raíces más grandes son más capaces de absorber agua y nutrientes del suelo (Ceccon et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Deforestation in Mexico has made restoration an urgent requirement. Erythrina americana is a multipurpose tree, useful for seasonally dry tropical forest restoration; however, it is poorly studied. Macropropagation of this species is advantageous when compared with sexual reproduction, since it requires scarification to germinate. In this study, the effects of the exogenous application of the phytohormone (indole-3-butyric acid) in the cuttings and/or a slow-release phosphate fertilizer (SRPF) in the substrate were evaluated on the growth and survival of E. americana cuttings in a greenhouse. We used a randomized experimental design of four blocks with 10 cuttings per treatment. We harvested 10 cuttings per treatment after 36, 66, 96 and 126 days of growth, and evaluated survival, total dry biomass production (TDB), relative growth rate (RGR), and resource allocation (RA). Cutting survival was high, averaging 95 %. Treatments did not affect total TDB, RGR or RA. However, the application of SRPF in the substrate showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) dry root biomass values. Growth periods also affect the RGR and RA. Macropropagation of E. americana was successful and non-labor-intensive, making this technique a feasible alternative for restoration projects mainly in low-resource rural communities.
    Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente 03/2015; 21(1):5-16. DOI:10.5154/r.rchscfa.2014.04.016 · 0.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Winddispersed species with small seeds may be transported long distances by wind currents over open areas (see Bacles et al., 2006), but most of them fall within a few meters from the parent tree (e.g., Burrows, 1986; Augspurger and Franson, 1987); animaldispersed seeds arrive at a given area when their vectors (i.e. birds, mammals) are attracted there, and seed distribution depends on animal behavior (see Griscom et al., 2007; Ceccon et al., 2006). Therefore, given that most forest animals avoid open areas, wind-dispersed pioneer species often are the first to arrive and dominate early-successional environments. "
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    ABSTRACT: To accelerate reforestation in tropical dry forest different intervention levels may be applied. We established plots of experimental restoration in four locations formerly covered by dry forest in three states located at the west and center of Mexico (Jalisco, Morelos and Puebla) to evaluate the effect of different levels of intervention in the recovery of plants, animals and their interactions. Minimal intervention implies exclusion from cattle ranching activities to favor natural succession; maximal intervention involves planting of native tree species dominant in the conserved forest to accelerate recovery; intermediate levels of intervention include direct seeding of pioneer and non-pioneer species to overcome dispersal or establishment limitation. In places with minimal intervention, richness and abundance of plant (woody and non-woody species) and animals (birds, bats, rodents, spiders and lepidoptera) increased with time of exclusion. Minimal intervention is suggested for places close to the forest that have some tree cover. Germination of pioneer and non-pioneer species by direct seeding was higher when a cover of herbs was present whereas survival of one-year old seedlings increases with removal of herbs. This intermediate level of intervention is suggested for places far away from seed sources and should include exclusion of disturbance. Maximal intervention (plantings) favored higher richness and abundance of animals and fall of seeds dispersed by them. Growth rates in stem volume and canopy cover of planted trees were favored with plastic mulching. Maximal intervention is suggested for places far away from seed sources and to accelerate recovery of ecosystem function.
    51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Cairns, Australia; 07/2014
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    • "This is consistent with results presented by Necajeva and Levinsh (2008) and Engels et al. (2011): the seeds of plants periodically exposed to a certain stress are more tolerant of the stress than those of plants less exposed to that stress. Consequently, the different abilities to tolerate flooding may explain, in part, why R. alexandrae is able to occur in wetland habitats, while R. nobile is not, since successful germination is the first requirement for plants to occupy a new site and develop a persistent population, especially species that rely entirely on seeds for regeneration (Ceccon et al. 2006; Song et al. 2013b). Unfortunately, we could not compare tolerance of seed germination to drought stress between R. alexandrae and R. nobile, since seed germination of R. alexandrae, like in R. nobile, was not inhibited by the applied drought stress (Fig. 1), probably because drought stress was not strong enough with watering every fourth day. "
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of how germination and seedling establishment respond to soil water condition is crucial for plant conservation under global warming and land-use changes. We tested the flooding and drought tolerance of two plant species with different occurrences along a soil water gradient by assessing seed germination, seedling survival, seedling growth, and root characteristics. In the high Sino-Himalayas, Rheum alexandrae typically occurs in wetlands, R. nobile in scree or open slope with well-drained soils. Seeds and seedlings of the two species were subjected to different soil water conditions in controlled greenhouse experiments. Seed germination in both species was inhibited by high soil water content; however, seeds of R. alexandrae were more tolerant to flooding, especially to submergence. Seedling survival, biomass accumulation, root diameter, and root porosity of R. alexandrae increased significantly with increased soil water content, but submergence was lethal for seedlings. Seedling survival, biomass accumulation, and root length of R. nobile increased significantly in response to reduced soil water content. These results indicate that in the two species, seed germination and seedling establishment in response to different soil water condition are habitat-specific. Because both species are susceptible to moderate changes in soil water condition, their species-specific requirements with respect to this factor should be a consideration when planning their conservation.
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