Tailored tobacco dependence support for mental health patients: A model for inpatient and community services

Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/2012; 107(S2). DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04082.x

ABSTRACT AimsAlthough smoking prevalence among people with severe mental illness is high, it remains largely unaddressed. This pragmatic pilot project aimed to develop and implement a tailored tobacco dependence service in mental health settings and to assess its impact, as well as barriers and facilitators to implementation. DesignAn integrative service model, spanning acute, rehabilitation and community services, including the design of tailored instruments and referral pathways, delivered by two mental health professionals. Setting and participantsFour adult acute and two rehabilitation wards (129 beds), and the community recovery team (2038 cases) of the United Kingdom's largest Mental Health Trust. MeasurementsAudit of smoking information in patient notes; service uptake; quit attempts; smoking cessation and reduction; qualitative data on implementation barriers/facilitators. FindingsA total of 110 patients attended at least one support session: 53 inpatients (23% of inpatient smokers) and 57 community (of unknown number of community smokers, as recording of smoking status is not mandatory). Thirty-four of these (31%) made a quit attempt; 17 (15%) stopped smoking and 29 (26%) reduced cigarette consumption by up to 50% at the final contact. Barriers to service implementation related to: (i) trust policy, systems and procedures, (ii) staff knowledge and attitudes and (iii) illness-related factors. Conclusions
Despite the strong anti-smoking climate in the United Kingdom, including a law requiring smoke-free policies in mental health settings, establishing a smoking cessation treatment service for people with mental illness proved difficult, due to complex systemic barriers. However, there is clearly a demand, by patients, for such a service.

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    ABSTRACT: AimsSmoking is an increasing cause of health inequalities in high-income countries. This supplement describes pilot projects set up in England to develop and test pathways to ensure that disadvantaged groups, where smoking is frequently the norm, are reached, encouraged and supported to stop their tobacco use. Target groups were: smokers attending centres set up for highly deprived parents; smokers with serious and enduring mental illness; pregnant smokers; prisoners/other offenders who smoked; South Asian tobacco chewers; and recent quitters from ‘routine and manual’ occupational groups. Methods Commonalities observed across the six projects are summarized, alongside recommendations for implementation. ResultsA significant barrier to implementation was the lack of mandatory identification of tobacco users across primary, secondary and community health-care settings and routine use of expired air carbon monoxide monitoring, particularly for high-risk groups. Appropriate use of financial incentives and national guidance is probably necessary to achieve both this and the adoption of ‘joined-up’ tobacco dependence treatment pathways for these target groups. Further research is needed on the impact of ‘opt out’ pathways: while resulting in increased referral rates, success rates were lower. In general, smoking cessation service targets were a barrier to implementation. Flexibility and tailoring of interventions were required and most projects trained those already working in relevant settings, given their greater understanding of target groups. Mandatory training of all frontline health-care staff was deemed desirable. Conclusions Implementing the findings of these projects will require resources, for training, incentivizing health-care workers and further research. However, continuing with the status quo may result in sustained tobacco use health inequalities for the foreseeable future.
    Addiction 12/2012; 107(S2). DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04080.x · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In 2008, a new forensic hospital was opened as a totally smoke-free facility. This study describes the attitudes and experience of mental health professionals working in the high secure mental health facility three years after it was opened. It is part of a larger evaluation describing the experience of current and discharged hospital patients. Methods Quantitative data was collected using a survey of hospital staff (N = 111) with a 50% response rate. The survey collected demographic and smoking data to describe staff responses to statements relating to hospital smoking policy, patient care and staff support. Results Among staff surveyed, 13% were current smokers and 41% were ex-smokers (10% quit after commencing employment in the smoke-free hospital). Most (88%) preferred to work in a smoke-free environment, although this was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers (39% vs. 95%). While most staff felt that the smoke-free environment had a positive impact on the health of patients (86%) and on themselves (79%), smokers were significantly less likely to agree. Just over half (57%) of staff surveyed agreed that patient care was easier in a totally smoke-free environment, although less smokers agreed compared to non-smokers. Staff who smoked were also significantly less likely to indicate they had sufficient support working in a smoke-free environment, compared to non-smokers (15% vs. 38%). Conclusions The staff surveyed supported the smoke-free workplace policy; most agreed that patient care was easier and that the policy did not lead to an increase in patient aggression. Implementation of a total smoking ban can result in positive health outcomes for patients and staff, and may influence some staff to quit. Staff who smoke have a less positive experience of the policy and require additional support.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):315. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-315 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A psychobiological dimension of eating behaviour is proposed, which is anchored at the low end by energy intake that is relatively well matched to energy output and is reflected by a stable body mass index (BMI) in the healthy range. Further along the continuum are increasing degrees of overeating (and BMI) characterized by more severe and more compulsive ingestive behaviours. In light of the many similarities between chronic binge eating and drug abuse, several authorities have adopted the perspective that an apparent dependence on highly palatable food-accompanied by emotional and social distress-can be best conceptualized as an addiction disorder. Therefore, this review also considers the overlapping symptoms and characteristics of binge eating disorder (BED) and models of food addiction, both in preclinical animal studies and in human research. It also presents this work in the context of the modern and "toxic" food environment and therein the ubiquitous triggers for over-consumption. We complete the review by providing evidence that what we have come to call "food addiction" may simply be a more acute and pathologically dense form of BED.
    05/2013; 2013:435027. DOI:10.1155/2013/435027
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