Article

Comunicação visual por computador na esclerose lateral amiotrófica

Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia (Impact Factor: 0.44). 01/2004; DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492004000200020
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT OBJETIVO: Descrever os sistemas eletrônicos de comunicação utilizados por um paciente com esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA) e a doença oftal-mológica apresentada por um grupo de pacientes gravemente incapacitados. A partir deste relato, revisamos as manifestações oftalmológicas da esclerose lateral amiotrófica, os sistemas de comunicação não convencionais e a importância do atendimento domiciliar e da comunicação no tratamento destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: Relato de casos clínicos, descrição de equipamento e revisão da literatura. RESULTADOS: O paciente com esclerose lateral amiotrófica apresentou sintomas de origem bulbar, comprometimento da musculatura respiratória e dos membros, com musculatura ocular extrínseca parcialmente poupada, intelecto e estado de consciência intactos. Utilizando a mobilidade facial e a ocular, equipamento eletrônico e computador, ele conseguiu comunicar-se e trabalhar como desenhista gráfico. Atualmente, o tratamento paliativo recomendado para pacientes crônicos acamados é prestado por equipes multi-profissionais como a Assistência Domiciliar da Unimed-Campinas (ADUC). A doença oftalmológica encontrada neles é diversa. CONCLUSÕES: A esclerose lateral amiotrófica, assim como outras doenças crônicas podem deteriorar drasticamente a qualidade de vida. O seu tratamento e planejamento de custos de longo prazo devem proporcionar a maior autonomia possível, boa comunicação e meio ambiente digno e adequado, visando à saúde física e psicológica dos pacientes e a de seus familiares. O oftalmologista deve estar preparado para formar parte deste atendimento. Medidas simples, como piscar diante uma cartela, ou sofisticadas, como usar computador, são úteis e possibilitaram a "comunicação visual" dos pacientes, isto é, a expressão de idéias e pensamentos mediante os olhos e as pálpebras.

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