Article

Impacto nutricio del consumo de una leche entera adicionada con vitaminas y minerales en niños

Salud Pública de México 01/1999; DOI:10.1590/S0036-36341999000500007
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT OBJETIVO: Determinar el impacto nutricio del consumo de leche entera fortificada con vitaminas y minerales en niños. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, en 227 niños de entre 8 a 60 meses de edad. Se ofreció a los menores 500 ml diarios de leche entera fortificada por 90 días. Se registró ingestión, aceptación, peso, talla, hemoglobina (Hb), hierro (Fe), vitamina B12 y folatos séricos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con medidas de tendencia central y dispersión en variables dimensionales utilizando prueba t de Student para comparación de promedios y ji² para variables nominales. RESULTADOS: Al inicio de la suplementación 45 niños estaban desnutridos, y 36, anémicos. Al final de la misma estas cifras disminuyeron: 35 desnutridos (p< 0.21) y 18 niños anémicos (p< 0.01). Al inicio nueve niños tenían desnutrición severa y, al finalizar, sólo eran cinco los que la padecían. La comparación ingreso-egreso en los datos antropométricos fue como sigue (media±desviación estándar): Z peso/talla, -0.35±0.88 vs. -0.14±0.9 (p= 0.01); Hb en g/dl, 11±1.3 vs. 11.9±1.9 (p< 0.001); Fe en mg/dl, 108±44 vs. 115±31 (p= 0.06); vitamina B12 en pg/ml, 649±494 vs. 1 053±854 (p< 0.001). El apego y la aceptación fueron de 100 y 85%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de leche entera fortificada durante 90 días mejora significativamente el estado nutricio de los niños, reduce significativamente el número de niños con anemia e incrementa los niveles plasmáticos de Hb, Vitamina B12 y folatos.

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