O esporte e suas implicações na saúde óssea de atletas adolescentes

Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 01/2003; DOI: 10.1590/S1517-86922003000600007
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT A adolescência é um período fundamental para a aquisição da massa óssea. Em adolescentes atletas, o pico de massa óssea pode apresentar maior incremento, em virtude do estresse mecânico imposto aos ossos pelo exercício físico praticado. O objetivo desta revisão foi investigar o papel do treinamento esportivo vigoroso e precoce sobre a saúde óssea de atletas adolescentes. Através da revisão da literatura científica, envolvendo adolescentes atletas de diferentes modalidades e de ambos os sexos, é possível inferir que a densidade mineral óssea é potencializada pelos exercícios, quando grupos de atletas são comparados com grupos de controle. Entretanto, muito se discute na literatura quanto à recomendação da intensidade adequada da prescrição de exercício físico para população adolescente, uma vez que, caso o treinamento se torne muito extenuante, os benefícios gerados pela atividade sobre a saúde dos ossos podem ser minimizados ou anulados. Embora muita controvérsia ainda envolva o tema, independente do tipo de esporte praticado, o aumento de intensidade do treinamento deve ser razoável e coerente com as metas, sendo enfatizado treinamento seguro e eficaz para cada uma das faixas de idade e momentos da maturação biológica, independente dos calendários competitivos.

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    ABSTRACT: Osgood-Schlatter (OS) syndrome is a disease of the musculoskeletal system often observed during the bone growth phase in adolescents. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: Demographic and anthropometric factors and those linked to the practice of sports may be related to the prevalence of OS. The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiologic profile and associated factors of individuals with OS syndrome in a population-based sample of Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 956 adolescent students (474 boys, 482 girls) from 2008 to 2009 enrolled in the school system of Natal, Brazil. The age ranged between 12 and 15 years (13.7 ± 1.04 years). Tests were performed to assess the anthropometric and clinical aspects related to OS. To confirm the diagnosis of OS syndrome, the participant had to fulfill all the following clinical criteria: pain with direct pressure on the tibial apophysis; aforementioned pain before, during, and after physical activities; enlargement or prominence of the tibial apophysis; pain with resisted knee extension; and pain from jumping. The prevalence of OS in the sample was 9.8% (11.0% of boys and 8.3% of girls; boys, 13.5 ± 1.07 years; girls, 13.6 ± 1.01 years). The results showed that 74.6% of the students suffered from muscle shortening. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that the factors associated with the presence of OS were the regular practice of sport activity (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.10) and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle (odds ratio, 7.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.86-17.86). The regular practice of sports in the pubertal phase and the shortening of the rectus femoris muscle were the main factors associated to the presence of OS syndrome in the students.
    The American journal of sports medicine 11/2010; 39(2):415-20. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To present an up-to-date critical review about the impact of sports and physical activity on growth, pubertal development and bone mineralization of children and adolescents. Data source: Bibliographic search of Medline and Lilacs databases (1987-2007) with selection of studies written in English, Portuguese or Spanish, with the descriptors "sports" and "exercise" in combination with "growth", "puberty" and "bone mineralization". A total of 252 articles were retrieved and 48 of them were se- lected. Data synthesis: Light to moderate physical activity has a beneficial effect on growth and bone development, while intense physical training, specially if associated to dietary restrictions, may attenuate linear growth, pubertal development, reproductive function and bone mineraliza- tion. Different sports do not have specific effects on final height. There is a selection bias in which constitutional factors contribute to select favored biotypes to specific sports. Weight-training by pre-pubertal children may be harmful, if not supervised, due to the potential risk of injure to the growth plates; however, if performed under strict supervision, may provide muscle strength and resistance. Conclusions: Deleterious effects of sports in growth and development of children and adolescents were only observed in elite athletes submitted to intensive training and dietetic restriction. Longitudinal studies are neded to
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    ABSTRACT: Young females who engage in sports that demand low body weight like Rhythmic Gymnasts (RG), have low calorie and intensive physical training. These factors can stunt growth and sexual maturation. The aim of this study is to evaluate diet, growth, sexual maturation, and training, and compare this data with scientific literature The study included measurements of height and weight, assessment of breast and pubic hair development (Tanner Stages), and a questionnaire that included personal, family, and training data of nine female athletes (12±1.84 years). Of these 77.8% were below the 50th percentile for weight/age, and 55.6% were below 50th percentile for height/age respectively. 88.9% don't report menarche. All the athletes showed below average calories, calcium and iron intake for their recommended for ages. The athletes train on average 24.11±6.11 hours per week. The intensive physical training above 18 hours per week, over many years immediately before and during the puberty, represents a chronic stress to the body capable of influencing growth and the delay of the menarche. In conclusion, Rhythmic Gymnasts can develop anemia, fractures and/or osteoporosis, stunted growth, and sexual maturation.


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