Opportunities for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Prevention among Persons Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study of Policies and Practices at Four Large Ryan White Program-Funded HIV Clinics

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 07/2014; 9(7):e101313. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101313
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective
We describe the frequency and attributes of tuberculosis testing and treatment at four publicly-funded HIV clinics.

We abstracted medical records from a random sample of 600 HIV-infected patients having at least one clinic visit in 2009 at four clinics in New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical areas. We described testing and treatment for tuberculosis infection (TBI), 2008–2010, and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs). We interviewed key informants and described clinic policies and practices.

Of 600 patients, 500 were eligible for testing, and 393 (79%) were tested 2008–2010; 107 (21%) did not receive at least one tuberculin skin test or interferon gamma release assay. Results were positive in 20 (5%) patients, negative in 357 (91%), and unknown in 16 (4%). Fourteen (70%) of 20 patients with TBI initiated treatment at the clinics; only three were documented to have completed treatment. Three hundred twenty three (54%) patients had chest radiography, 346 (58%) had tuberculosis symptom screening, and three had tuberculosis disease (117 per 100,000 person-years, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 101–165). Adjusting for site, non-Hispanic ethnicity (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.6–9.5), and employment (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0–3.4) were associated with TBI testing; female gender (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4–3.3), non-black race (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3–2.5), and unemployment (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.1) were associated with chest radiography. Clinics evaluated TBI testing performance annually and identified challenges to TB prevention.

Study clinics routinely tested patients for TBI, but did not always document treatment. In a population with a high TB rate, ensuring treatment of TBI may enhance TB prevention.

Download full-text


Available from: Lisa Pascopella, Jul 11, 2014
39 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During 1993-2003, incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States decreased 44% and is now occurring at a historic low level (14,874 cases in 2003). The Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis has called for a renewed commitment to eliminating TB in the United States, and the Institute of Medicine has published a detailed plan for achieving that goal. In this statement, the American Thoracic Society (ATS), CDC, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) propose recommendations to improve the control and prevention of TB in the United States and to progress toward its elimination. This statement is one in a series issued periodically by the sponsoring organizations to guide the diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of TB. This statement supersedes the previous statement by ATS and CDC, which was also supported by IDSA and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). This statement was drafted, after an evidence-based review of the subject, by a panel of representatives of the three sponsoring organizations. AAP, the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association, and the Canadian Thoracic Society were also represented on the panel. This statement integrates recent scientific advances with current epidemiologic data, other recent guidelines from this series, and other sources into a coherent and practical approach to the control of TB in the United States. Although drafted to apply to TB control activities in the United States, this statement might be of use in other countries in which persons with TB generally have access to medical and public health services and resources necessary to make a precise diagnosis of the disease; achieve curative medical treatment; and otherwise provide substantial science-based protection of the population against TB. This statement is aimed at all persons who advocate, plan, and work at controlling and preventing TB in the United States, including persons who formulate public health policy and make decisions about allocation of resources for disease control and health maintenance and directors and staff members of state, county, and local public health agencies throughout the United States charged with control of TB. The audience also includes the full range of medical practitioners, organizations, and institutions involved in the health care of persons in the United States who are at risk for TB.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 12/2005; 54(RR-12):1-81.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: n 2005, CDC published guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-G) (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Victoria, Australia) (CDC. Guidelines for using the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, United States. MMWR;54[No. RR-15]:49-55). Subsequently, two new interferon gamma (IFN- gamma) release assays (IGRAs) were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as aids in diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection, both latent infection and infection manifesting as active tuberculosis. These tests are the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) (Cellestis Limited, Carnegie, Victoria, Australia) and the T-SPOT.TB test (T-Spot) (Oxford Immunotec Limited, Abingdon, United Kingdom). The antigens, methods, and interpretation criteria for these assays differ from those for IGRAs approved previously by FDA. For assistance in developing recommendations related to IGRA use, CDC convened a group of experts to review the scientific evidence and provide opinions regarding use of IGRAs. Data submitted to FDA, published reports, and expert opinion related to IGRAs were used in preparing these guidelines. Results of studies examining sensitivity, specificity, and agreement for IGRAs and TST vary with respect to which test is better. Although data on the accuracy of IGRAs and their ability to predict subsequent active tuberculosis are limited, to date, no major deficiencies have been reported in studies involving various populations. This report provides guidance to U.S. public health officials, health-care providers, and laboratory workers for use of FDA-approved IGRAs in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in adults and children. In brief, TSTs and IGRAs (QFT-G, QFT-GIT, and T-Spot) may be used as aids in diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection. They may be used for surveillance purposes and to identify persons likely to benefit from treatment. Multiple additional recommendations are provided that address quality control, test selection, and medical management after testing. Although substantial progress has been made in documenting the utility of IGRAs, additional research is needed that focuses on the value and limitations of IGRAs in situations of importance to medical care or tuberculosis control. Specific areas needing additional research are listed.
    MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 06/2010; 59(RR-5):1-25.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multi-institution collaborative quality improvement programs are a well-established and broadly applicable quality improvement strategy, but there is little systematic assessment their effectiveness. To evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement collaborative in improving the quality of care for HIV-infected patients. Controlled pre- and postintervention study. Clinics receiving funding from the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act. 44 intervention clinics and 25 control clinics matched by location (urban or rural), region, size, and clinic type. Changes in quality-of-care measures abstracted from medical records of pre- and postintervention samples of patients at each study clinic. Measures examined included use and effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, screening and prophylaxis, and access to care. A multi-institutional quality improvement collaborative (the "Breakthrough Series"). 9986 patients were studied. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of the intervention and control patients were similar (P > 0.05). Differences in changes in the quality of care were not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a suppressed viral load increased by 11 percentage points (from 40.1% to 51.1%) in the intervention group compared with 5.3 percentage points (from 43.6% to 48.8%) in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). In addition, rates of appropriate screening tests and prophylaxis did not differ between intervention and control sites. It was not possible to perform a pure randomized trial of the intervention or to assess other measures of quality, such as adherence and satisfaction. This prospective, matched study of almost 10 000 patients found that a quality improvement collaborative did not significantly affect the quality of care. Additional research is needed to improve methods of teaching and implementing quality improvement programs to achieve better results.
    Annals of internal medicine 06/2004; 140(11):887-96. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-140-11-200406010-00010 · 17.81 Impact Factor
Show more