Efficacy of vaccination against influenza in patients with multiple sclerosis: The role of concomitant therapies

Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 07/2014; 32(37). DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.068
Source: PubMed


Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease affecting over 2.1 million patients worldwide. Patients affected by MS are exposed to an increased risk of infection from communicable diseases, which may lead to severe disease relapses. Studies have analysed the issue of vaccination of MS-affected patients. These studies, however, deal mostly with safety-related issues documenting that most vaccines have been proven to be safe in MS patients and that vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of relapses. By contrast, evidence on the efficacy is comparatively scant and not yet systematised in a comprehensive picture. This aspect is however important, as both MS and its treatment alter the immune responses, a situation that may be associated with a reduced vaccine efficacy. We have now reviewed the literature and assessed the effects of the therapy for MS on vaccine efficacy; we focused on the vaccine against influenza as for the other vaccines the information is still too scant. The majority of drugs appear not associated with a reduced response to vaccination against influenza, with the notable exception of mitoxantrone and glatiramer acetate. For a few drugs, among which natalizumab, information is not sufficiently clear and additional studies are needed to draw a definite conclusion. These results highlight the importance to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in patients treated with immunosuppressant drugs.

1 Follower
14 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccines are safe and efficacious in reducing the burden of several serious infections affecting children and adults. Due to their efficacy, vaccines are often administered in patients with chronic diseases, likely to be under poly-therapy. Because of several case reports indicating changes in drug metabolism after vaccination, the hypothesis of an interaction between vaccines and specific drugs has been put forward. These interactions are conceivably of great concern, especially in patients treated with molecules characterised by a narrow therapeutic index. Herein, we review and systematise the available evidence on vaccine-drug interactions. The picture that emerges indicates that reduction in the activity of specific CYPs following vaccination may occur, most likely via interferon γ overproduction, and for specific drugs such as anticonvulsivant and theophylline may have significant clinical relevance. Clinical interaction between vaccines and drugs that are metabolised by cytochromes uninfluenced by INFγ levels, such as warfarin, are instead unlikely to happen. Further studies are however needed to gain a complete picture of vaccine-drug interactions and define their relevance in terms of possible negative clinical impact.
    Pharmacological Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.09.003 · 4.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Until now, the occurrence of adverse reactions among individuals inoculated with identical vaccines has been ascribed to unpredictable stochastic processes. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics indicate that some features of host response to immunisation are influenced by genetic traits, henceforth predictable. The ability to predict the adverse reaction to vaccination would represent an important step towards the development of personalised vaccinology and could enhance public confidence in the safety of vaccines. Herein, we have reviewed all the available information on the association between genetic variants and the risk for healthy subjects to develop adverse reactions.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.57.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 10/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1038/tpj.2014.57 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meningococcal meningitis represents one of the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in developed countries. Among the thirteen described serogroups, only five are usually responsible of invasive infections making immunisation against multiple serogroups the best strategy to protect individuals from this disease. Herein we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, of the recently EU-licensed meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). We included 15 randomised clinical trials, comparing MenACWY-TT and Men-PS (ten studies), MenACWY-TT and MenC-CRM197 (four studies) and MenACWY-TT and MenACWY-DT (one study).All studies included in the meta-analysis showed high immunogenicity for MenACWY-TT vaccines in all tested serogroups. Our results suggest that the MenACWY-TT vaccine is as immunogenic as the other commercial avaiable meningococcal vaccines.
    Pharmacological Research 10/2014; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.10.006 · 4.41 Impact Factor
Show more