Efficacy of vaccination against influenza in patients with multiple sclerosis: The role of concomitant therapies
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease affecting over 2.1 million patients worldwide. Patients affected by MS are exposed to an increased risk of infection from communicable diseases, which may lead to severe disease relapses. Studies have analysed the issue of vaccination of MS-affected patients. These studies, however, deal mostly with safety-related issues documenting that most vaccines have been proven to be safe in MS patients and that vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of relapses. By contrast, evidence on the efficacy is comparatively scant and not yet systematised in a comprehensive picture. This aspect is however important, as both MS and its treatment alter the immune responses, a situation that may be associated with a reduced vaccine efficacy. We have now reviewed the literature and assessed the effects of the therapy for MS on vaccine efficacy; we focused on the vaccine against influenza as for the other vaccines the information is still too scant. The majority of drugs appear not associated with a reduced response to vaccination against influenza, with the notable exception of mitoxantrone and glatiramer acetate. For a few drugs, among which natalizumab, information is not sufficiently clear and additional studies are needed to draw a definite conclusion. These results highlight the importance to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in patients treated with immunosuppressant drugs.
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ABSTRACT: Meningococcal meningitis represents one of the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in developed countries. Among the thirteen described serogroups, only five are usually responsible of invasive infections making immunisation against multiple serogroups the best strategy to protect individuals from this disease. Herein we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis, in accordance with the PRISMA statement, of the recently EU-licensed meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT). We included 15 randomised clinical trials, comparing MenACWY-TT and Men-PS (ten studies), MenACWY-TT and MenC-CRM197 (four studies) and MenACWY-TT and MenACWY-DT (one study).All studies included in the meta-analysis showed high immunogenicity for MenACWY-TT vaccines in all tested serogroups. Our results suggest that the MenACWY-TT vaccine is as immunogenic as the other commercial avaiable meningococcal vaccines.Pharmacological Research 10/2014; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.10.006 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The term "ASIA-Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants" describes an umbrella of clinical conditions sharing similar signs or symptoms, including post-vaccination phenomena. No information is available on the epidemiology of the ASIA syndrome, especially following HPV vaccination. We carried out an analysis of the VAERS database to retrieve all cases of suspected ASIA syndrome according to the Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin's guideline for the diagnosis. After causality assessment and case validation, 2,207 cases were considered probably or possibly related to vaccination. These represent the largest ASIA cohort ever reported and allowed us to estimate epidemiological and clinical characteristic of this syndrome. The commonest clinical manifestation observed were pyrexia (58 %), myalgia (27 %) and arthralgia or arthritis (19 %), and the estimated reporting rate was of 3.6 cases per 100,000 doses of HPV vaccine distributed (95 % CI 3.4-3.7). This study presents the first systematic estimation of ASIA incidence and expands the knowledge on this pathology. Further analyses are needed to identify genetic and non-genetic risk factors for ASIA syndrome.Immunologic Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8567-3 · 3.53 Impact Factor