SUMOylation of ATRIP potentiates DNA damage signaling by boosting multiple protein interactions in the ATR pathway
Genes & Development
(Impact Factor: 10.8).
07/2014; 28(13):1472-84. DOI: 10.1101/gad.238535.114
The ATR (ATM [ataxia telangiectasia-mutated]- and Rad3-related) checkpoint is a crucial DNA damage signaling pathway. While the ATR pathway is known to transmit DNA damage signals through the ATR-Chk1 kinase cascade, whether post-translational modifications other than phosphorylation are important for this pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we show that protein SUMOylation plays a key role in the ATR pathway. ATRIP, the regulatory partner of ATR, is modified by SUMO2/3 at K234 and K289. An ATRIP mutant lacking the SUMOylation sites fails to localize to DNA damage and support ATR activation efficiently. Surprisingly, the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant is compromised in the interaction with a protein group, rather than a single protein, in the ATR pathway. Multiple ATRIP-interacting proteins, including ATR, RPA70, TopBP1, and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex, exhibit reduced binding to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant in cells and display affinity for SUMO2 chains in vitro, suggesting that they bind not only ATRIP but also SUMO. Fusion of a SUMO2 chain to the ATRIP SUMOylation mutant enhances its interaction with the protein group and partially suppresses its localization and functional defects, revealing that ATRIP SUMOylation promotes ATR activation by providing a unique type of protein glue that boosts multiple protein interactions along the ATR pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Sumoylation has important roles during DNA damage repair and responses. Recent broad-scope and substrate-based studies have shed light on the regulation and significance of sumoylation during these processes. An emerging paradigm is that sumoylation of many DNA metabolism proteins is controlled by DNA engagement. Such 'on-site modification' can explain low substrate modification levels and has important implications in sumoylation mechanisms and effects. New studies also suggest that sumoylation can regulate a process through an ensemble effect or via major substrates. Additionally, we describe new trends in the functional effects of sumoylation, such as bi-directional changes in biomolecule binding and multilevel coordination with other modifications. These emerging themes and models will stimulate our thinking and research in sumoylation and genome maintenance.
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Trends in Biochemical Sciences 03/2015; 40(6). DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2015.02.006 · 11.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse plays a crucial role in the development of different liver associated disorders. Intake promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species within hepatic cells exposing their DNA to continuous oxidative stress which finally leads to DNA damage. However in response to such damage an entangled protective repair machinery comprising different repair proteins like ATM, ATR, H2AX, MRN complex becomes activated. Under abnormal conditions the excessive reactive oxygen species generation results in genetic predisposition of various genes (as ADH, ALDH, CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1) involved in xenobiotic metabolic pathways, associated with susceptibility to different liver related diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is increasing evidence that the inflammatory process is inherently associated with many different cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The generated reactive oxygen species can also activate or repress epigenetic elements such as chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNAs (micro-RNAs), DNA (de) methylation and histone modification that affect gene expression, hence leading to various disorders. The present review provides comprehensive knowledge of different molecular mechanisms involved in gene polymorphism and their possible association with alcohol and tobacco consumption. The article also showcases the necessity of identifying novel diagnostic biomarkers for early cancer risk assessment among alcohol and tobacco users.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 07/2015; 16(12):4803-4812. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.12.4803 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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