Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit
ABSTRACT The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaça), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a.) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a.) in cachaças, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachaças (6 mg/100 mL a.a.) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachaças have been observed.
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ABSTRACT: This work focuses on the development, validation, and use of analytical methods for the identification and quantitation of relevant constituents in sugar cane spirits from Brazil and Cape Verde. The compositions of both artisanal and industrial products were investigated. Repeatability, recovery, linearity of analytical curves, limits of detection, and limits of quantitation were parameters considered for methods validation. Gas chromatography was used for the analyses of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and alcohols. Anions were analyzed by ion chromatography, while metal ions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Good precision and accuracy were achieved, and the concentrations of some constituents were found to be higher than allowed by law, namely: acetaldehyde, in five samples from Cape Verde and in three samples from Brazil; n-butyl alcohol, in two samples from Cape Verde and in three samples from Brazil; higher alcohols, in three samples from Cape Verde and in two samples from Brazil. On the other hand, mean concentrations of acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were in accordance with legal requirements. Further discussion is presented regarding differences observed between the compositions of the samples studied. Key words: Sugar cane spirits, cachaça, grogue, quality control, chemical composition, chromatography, methods validation, Brazil, Cape Verde.African Journal of Food Science. 09/2012; 6(17):427-440.
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ABSTRACT: Ethyl carbamate (EC), which is probably carcinogenic to humans, can be produced during the alcoholic fermentation of sugar-cane juice to give cachaça. The stages to produce cachaça are obtainment of sugar-cane juice, sugar-cane fermentation to wine, and obtainment of distilled fractions and residue. In order to investigate the presence of EC in the wine and in the fractions of the distillation process, as well as in the vinasse (the residue left after distillation), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was employed. After the fermentation phase, the wine showed an average content of 122 mg L�1 of EC. Average EC content in distilled fractions was 59.7 mg L�1 for head, 52 lg�L�1 for heart and 1.57 mg L�1 for tail. EC content was 53.1 mg L�1 for vinasse. The results showed that it is essential to separate the head and tail fractions to ensure cachaça quality, with respect to EC content.Food Chemistry 06/2011; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min(-1), 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO(3) as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L(-1), and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L(-1), n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%.International Journal of Analytical Chemistry 01/2011; 2011:765746.