Authorship in Global Mental Health Research: Recommendations for Collaborative Approaches to Writing and Publishing.
ABSTRACT Collaborations among researchers, clinicians, and individuals with mental illness from high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are crucial to produce research, interventions, and policies that are relevant, feasible, and ethical. However, global mental health and cultural psychiatry research publications have been dominated by HIC investigators.
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ABSTRACT: To determine if a post-partum depression syndrome exists among mothers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by adapting and validating standard screening instruments. Using qualitative interviewing techniques, we interviewed a convenience sample of 80 women living in a large peri-urban community to better understand local conceptions of mental illness. We used this information to adapt two standard depression screeners, the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. In a subsequent quantitative study, we identified another 133 women with and without the local depression syndrome and used this information to validate the adapted screening instruments. Based on the qualitative data, we found a local syndrome that closely approximates the Western model of major depressive disorder. The women we interviewed, representative of the local populace, considered this an important syndrome among new mothers because it negatively affects women and their young children. Women (n = 41) identified as suffering from this syndrome had statistically significantly higher depression severity scores on both adapted screeners than women identified as not having this syndrome (n = 20; P < 0.0001). When it is unclear or unknown if Western models of psychopathology are appropriate for use in the local context, these models must be validated to ensure cross-cultural applicability. Using a mixed-methods approach we found a local syndrome similar to depression and validated instruments to screen for this disorder. As the importance of compromised mental health in developing world populations becomes recognized, the methods described in this report will be useful more widely.Tropical Medicine & International Health 11/2008; 13(12):1534-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02160.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emil Kraepelin, well known as the principal designer of modern psychiatric nosology, is less well known for his pioneering work in comparative sociocultural psychiatry. This paper is trying to document Kraepelin's role as the inaugurator of systematic investigations into culture-dependent differences in psychopathology. Despite his many responsibilities as clinician, teacher, hospital administrator and scientific author, Kraepelin considered cross-cultural comparison of such importance that he spent considerable time on the preparation of then very cumbersome overseas expeditions. His first research journey in 1904 to Southeast Asia led to the programmatic formulation of comparative psychiatry as a scientific endeavour designed to contribute to the better understanding of psychopathological processes and to a comprehensive comparative ethnopsychology ("Voelkerpsychologie"). Kraepelin's main cross-cultural research project, planned to extend to seven non-European countries and to involve many foreign colleagues, was prevented by World War I and postwar complications. One year before his unexpected death, Kraepelin conducted comparative studies with American Indian, Afro-American and Latin American patients at psychiatric institutions in the United States, Mexico and Cuba in 1925. In his writings Kraepelin commented on certain differences in the incidence and presentation of psychopathological phenomena that he considered to be due to ethnic-cultural characteristics or social conditions. This paper discusses in detail Kraepelin's observations on the pathoplastic and pathogenic effects of cultural and social factors, and demonstrates the influence of his ideas on the development of modern social and transcultural psychiatry.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 02/1995; 245(4-5):231-8. DOI:10.1007/BF02191802 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Family processes of communication, mutual support, and sustenance of cultural values can play vital roles in recovery from psychological and material damage in societies afflicted by terror. This is particularly the case when a campaign of terror has specifically targeted family life and its traditions, when the culture is one whose identity has been centered in its families, and when public mental health resources have been scarce. At the end of the 1999 war in Kosova, the Kosovar Family Professional Educational Collaborative (KFPEC) was initiated to counter mental health sequelae of war in Kosova. This initiative focused upon the recovery and strengthening of Kosovar families, rather than the psychiatric treatment of individuals for post-traumatic symptoms. Findings and outcomes from this project may usefully inform the design of other international public mental health initiatives.Behavioral Sciences & the Law 07/2005; 23(4):547-58. DOI:10.1002/bsl.650 · 0.96 Impact Factor