Influência da temperatura e do molhamento foliar no monociclo da mancha de alternaria em girassol

Fitopatologia Brasileira 01/2002; DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582002000200012
Source: DOAJ


A influência da temperatura (15 °C - 32,5 °C) e da duração do período de molhamento foliar (2 h - 24 h) no desenvolvimento da mancha de Alternaria em girassol (Alternaria helianthi) foi quantificada por meio de estudos em ambiente controlado. Também foi verificada a influência da temperatura no crescimento micelial e na germinação de conídios do fungo, em ensaios in vitro. A densidade relativa de lesões e a severidade foram influenciadas pela temperatura e pela duração do período de molhamento foliar. A doença foi mais severa na temperatura de 25 °C. A temperatura mínima para desenvolvimento da doença, estimada pela função beta generalizada, foi de 13,0 °C e a máxima foi de 35,8 °C. A mancha de Alternaria foi maior com o aumento da duração do período de molhamento foliar, o que foi descrito pelo modelo logístico. A superfície de resposta obtida pela multiplicação das funções beta generalizada e logística teve um bom ajuste para os dados observados (R²=0,87 para densidade relativa de lesões e 0,92 para severidade). O crescimento micelial e a germinação de conídios em função da temperatura também foram descritos pela função beta generalizada. As temperaturas mínimas estimadas para a taxa de crescimento micelial e para a germinação de conídios foram de 5,5 °C e 7,9 °C e as máximas foram de 32,9 °C e 40,0 °C, respectivamente. Na avaliação de dez híbridos de girassol inoculados artificialmente, em condições controladas, houve diferença entre os materiais quanto à resistência à infecção e à colonização por A. helianthi.

Download full-text


Available from: Regina M.V.B.C Leite,
  • Source

    Soybean Physiology and Biochemistry, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-534-1
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The sunflower cultivation has received great attention because of their agronomic characteristics and the possibility of inclusion in crop rotation systems. However, the different climatic conditions prevailing in the growing season determine the occurrence or not of the disease, so that this knowledge is critical for choosing the best growing season. This study aimed to determine the severity of Alternaria and Septoria leaf spots on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) at different sowing dates. Experiments were carried out during four seasons, from 2007 to 2011, in Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiments had a completely randomized design with two-factor (sowing dates vs. sunflower hybrids). The measurements of plant growth and severity of leaf spots caused by Alternaria and Septoria were taken once and twice a week, respectively. The final severity (SVFO) and the variables area under the disease progress curve (AACPD) and days of healthy leaf area (DAFS) were determined and used for comparing hybrids and sowing dates. In the crop seasons of 2007/2008, 2008/2009 and 2010/2011, the severity of disease was lower for early sowing dates from August to September, while the later ones tended to increase the disease severities. In 2009/2010 growing season, period under El Niño influence and with rainfall above normal, all sowing dates resulted in high disease severity, especially negative for the first sowing dates because of the highest rainfall in years under the phenomenon influence. Therefore, the late sowing or sowing during El Niño years are favorable to high Alternaria and septoria leaf spots severity in sunflower crop and then the sowing should be avoided under those conditions.
    Bragantia 12/2011; 71(2):282-289. DOI:10.1590/S0006-87052012005000012 · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The influence of temperature (21, 24, 27 and 30 °C) and leaf wetness duration (0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours) on the penetration of the causal agent of Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) was quantified under controlled environment. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) and the incidence were influenced by temperature and leaf wetness duration. There were significant differences (P=0.05) in AUDPC for the different temperatures, as well as a significant interaction (P=0.05) between temperatures and leaf wetness. Symptoms were observed at all temperatures; however, higher AUDPC was observed for inoculated leaves kept at 24 and 27°C, from 48 hours of leaf wetness. At temperatures of 21°C and 30°C, the incidence of Black Sigatoka was low. The minimum leaf wetness duration for the disease progress was 24 hours. Symptoms of Black Sigatoka were not observed for inoculated leaves with 0 and 12-hour leaf wetness at all temperatures. After 5 days in humid chamber, all asymptomatic leaves presented symptoms characteristic of Black Sigatoka, demonstrating that the conidia inoculated in the leaves kept viable for a certain period in the absence of free water on the leaf.
    Summa Phytopathologica 06/2012; 38(2):144-147. DOI:10.1590/S0100-54052012000200006