Article

Associations of Stressful Life Events and Social Strain With Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Women's Health Initiative.

Journal of the American Heart Association 04/2014; 3(3). DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000687
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epidemiologic studies have yielded mixed findings on the association of psychosocial stressors with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this study, we examined associations of stressful life events (SLE) and social strain with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke (overall, and for hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes) independent of sociodemographic characteristics, and we evaluated whether these relationships were explained by traditional behavioral and biological risk factors.

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    ABSTRACT: More attention has been paid to psychosocial conditions as possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the impact of accumulated major life events (MLE) on the development of CVD has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the influences of MLE on CVD risk in a large cohort study. The study population consisted of 9542 randomly selected adults free of CVD examined in the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1991-1994 and followed up for CVD defined as myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke until 2001. MLE were analysed using an 11-item questionnaire and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. During follow-up there were 443 myocardial infarctions (MI) and 350 ischaemic strokes. Financial problems in both childhood and adulthood were associated with risk of stroke with an HR of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.29-2.26) and 1.60 (1.12-2.30), respectively. Accumulation of MLE was also associated with risk of stroke with HR reaching a maximum of 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06-1.90) for more than one event in childhood and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.09-2.04) for more than one event in adulthood. MLE accumulated over a life course showed a dose-response relationship with stroke. Associations were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for vital exhaustion suggesting a mediating role, but not by adjustment for behavioural risk factors. There were no associations between MLE and MI. In this population-based cohort study, we found that MLE conveyed a moderately increased risk of stroke partly mediated through vital exhaustion. We found no association between MLE and the risk of MI.
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these risk factors to the burden of stroke, and explore the differences between risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction. We undertook a standardised case-control study in 22 countries worldwide between March 1, 2007, and April 23, 2010. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptoms onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls had no history of stroke, and were matched with cases for age and sex. All participants completed a structured questionnaire and a physical examination, and most provided blood and urine samples. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) for the association of all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke with selected risk factors. In the first 3000 cases (n=2337, 78%, with ischaemic stroke; n=663, 22%, with intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke) and 3000 controls, significant risk factors for all stroke were: history of hypertension (OR 2.64, 99% CI 2.26-3.08; PAR 34.6%, 99% CI 30.4-39.1); current smoking (2.09, 1.75-2.51; 18.9%, 15.3-23.1); waist-to-hip ratio (1.65, 1.36-1.99 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26.5%, 18.8-36.0); diet risk score (1.35, 1.11-1.64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18.8%, 11.2-29.7); regular physical activity (0.69, 0.53-0.90; 28.5%, 14.5-48.5); diabetes mellitus (1.36, 1.10-1.68; 5.0%, 2.6-9.5); alcohol intake (1.51, 1.18-1.92 for more than 30 drinks per month or binge drinking; 3.8%, 0.9-14.4); psychosocial stress (1.30, 1.06-1.60; 4.6%, 2.1-9.6) and depression (1.35, 1.10-1.66; 5.2%, 2.7-9.8); cardiac causes (2.38, 1.77-3.20; 6.7%, 4.8-9.1); and ratio of apolipoproteins B to A1 (1.89, 1.49-2.40 for highest vs lowest tertile; 24.9%, 15.7-37.1). Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 88.1% (99% CI 82.3-92.2) of the PAR for all stroke. When an alternate definition of hypertension was used (history of hypertension or blood pressure >160/90 mm Hg), the combined PAR was 90.3% (85.3-93.7) for all stroke. These risk factors were all significant for ischaemic stroke, whereas hypertension, smoking, waist-to-hip ratio, diet, and alcohol intake were significant risk factors for intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke. Our findings suggest that ten risk factors are associated with 90% of the risk of stroke. Targeted interventions that reduce blood pressure and smoking, and promote physical activity and a healthy diet, could substantially reduce the burden of stroke. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Pfizer Cardiovascular Award, Merck, AstraZeneca, and Boehringer Ingelheim.
    The Lancet 07/2010; 376(9735):112-23. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perceived mental stress has been associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in white men, but no prospective data are available for other ethnic groups. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 73 424 Japanese (30 180 men and 43 244 women), aged 40 to 79 years, without a history of stroke, CHD, or cancer completed a lifestyle questionnaire including perception of mental stress under the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho (JACC Study). Systematic surveillance was completed until the end of 1997, with a 580 378 person-year follow-up, and the underlying causes of death were determined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. For women, there were 316 with total stroke, 113 with CHD, and 643 with total cardiovascular disease (CVD); for men, there were 341, 168, and 778, respectively. Women who reported high stress had a 2-fold higher age-adjusted risk of mortality from total stroke and CHD and 1.5-fold higher risk of total CVD compared with those who reported low stress. Further adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors and selected psychological variables did not alter the associations materially. The multivariate relative risk for women who perceived high stress versus low stress was 2.24 (95% CI 1.52 to 3.31, P<0.001) for total stroke, 2.28 (95% CI 1.17 to 4.43, P=0.02) for CHD, and 1.64 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.16, P<0.001) for total CVD. For men, these relations were generally weaker but suggestive of myocardial infarction. Perceived mental stress was associated with increased mortality from stroke for women and with CHD for men and women.
    Circulation 10/2002; 106(10):1229-36. · 14.95 Impact Factor

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