Null Association Between Vitamin D and PSA Levels Among Black Men in a Vitamin D Supplementation Trial.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 06/2014; 23(9). DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0522
Background: Black men exhibit a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as well as higher incidence of prostate cancer and higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than Whites. There are few data about the effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on prostate specific antigen (PSA) in healthy Black men. Methods: During 3 winters from 2007-2010, 105 Black men (median age, 48.9 years) of Boston, MA were randomized into a 4-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3. At baseline and 3 months, free and total PSA were measured. Results: With vitamin D supplementation, no significant differences in free and total PSA were observed; free PSA: -0.0004 ng/mL (p=0.94) and total PSA: -0.004 ng/mL (p=0.92) for each additional 1000 IU/d of vitamin D3. Conclusion: Within an unselected population of healthy Black men without a cancer diagnosis, we found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on free or total PSA. Impact: These findings support prior findings of no change in PSA with vitamin D supplementation and emphasize the need for new methods to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer prevention.
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ABSTRACT: Background: African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods: Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results: AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions: Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0125151. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125151 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US men and the prevalence continues to rise world-wide especially in countries where men consume a ‘Western-style’ diet. Epidemiologic, preclinical and clinical studies suggest a potential role for dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa. 'This minireview provides an overview of recent published literature with regard to nutrients, dietary factors, dietary patterns and PCa incidence and progression. Low carbohydrates intake, soy protein, omega-3 (w-3) fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression. A higher saturated fat intake and a higher β-carotene status may increase risk. A ‘U’ shape relationship may exist between folate, vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium with PCa risk. Despite the inconsistent and inconclusive findings, the potential for a role of dietary intake for the prevention and treatment of PCa is promising. The combination of all the beneficial factors for PCa risk reduction in a healthy dietary pattern may be the best dietary advice. This pattern includes rich fruits and vegetables, reduced refined carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, and reduced cooked meats. Further carefully designed prospective trials are warranted.BMC Medicine 12/2015; 13(1). DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y · 7.25 Impact Factor
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