Simultaneous optical mapping of intracellular free calcium and action potentials from Langendorff perfused hearts.
ABSTRACT The cardiac action potential (AP) controls the rise and fall of intracellular free Ca2+ (Ca(i)), and thus the amplitude and kinetics of force generation. Besides excitation-contraction coupling, the reverse process where Ca(i) influences the AP through Ca(i)-dependent ionic currents has been implicated as the mechanism underlying QT alternans and cardiac arrhythmias in heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac myopathy, myocardial infarction, congenital and drug-induced long QT syndrome, and ventricular fibrillation. The development of dual optical mapping at high spatial and temporal resolution provides a powerful tool to investigate the role of Ca(i) anomalies in eliciting cardiac arrhythmias. This unit describes experimental protocols to map APs and Ca(i) transients from perfused hearts by labeling the heart with two fluorescent dyes, one to measure transmembrane potential (Vm), the other Ca(i) transients. High spatial and temporal resolution is achieved by selecting Vm and Ca(i) probes with the same excitation but different emission wavelengths, to avoid cross-talk and mechanical components.
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ABSTRACT: Electroanatomic mapping the interrelation of intracardiac electrical activation with anatomic locations has become an important tool for clinical assessment of complex arrhythmias. Optical mapping of cardiac electrophysiology combines high spatiotemporal resolution of anatomy and physiological function with fast and simultaneous data acquisition. If applied to the clinical setting, this could improve both diagnostic potential and therapeutic efficacy of clinical arrhythmia interventions. The aim of this study was to explore this utility in vivo using a rat model. To this aim, we present a single-camera imaging and multiple light-emitting-diode illumination system that reduces economic and technical implementation hurdles to cardiac optical mapping. Combined with a red-shifted calcium dye and a new near-infrared voltage-sensitive dye, both suitable for use in blood-perfused tissue, we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo multi-parametric imaging of the mammalian heart. Our approach combines recording of electrophysiologically-relevant parameters with observation of structural substrates and is adaptable, in principle, to trans-catheter percutaneous approaches.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42562. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multi-parametric electrophysiological measurements using optical methods have become a highly valued standard in cardiac research. Most published optical mapping systems are expensive and complex. Although some applications demand high-cost components and complex designs, many can be tackled with simpler solutions. Here, we describe (1) a camera-based voltage and calcium imaging system using a single 'economy' electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera and demonstrate the possibility of using a consumer camera for imaging calcium transients of the heart, and (2) a photodiode-based voltage and calcium high temporal resolution measurement system using single-element photodiodes and an optical fibre. High-throughput drug testing represents an application where system scalability is particularly attractive. Therefore, we tested our systems on tissue exposed to a well-characterized and clinically relevant calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, which has been used to treat angina and hypertension. As experimental models, we used the Langendorff-perfused whole-heart and thin ventricular tissue slices, a preparation gaining renewed interest by the cardiac research community. Using our simplified systems, we were able to monitor simultaneously the marked changes in the voltage and calcium transients that are responsible for the negative inotropic effect of the compound.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 09/2012; · 4.46 Impact Factor
Article: Simultaneous measurement and modulation of multiple physiological parameters in the isolated heart using optical techniques.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Whole-heart multi-parametric optical mapping has provided valuable insight into the interplay of electrophysiological parameters, and this technology will continue to thrive as dyes are improved and technical solutions for imaging become simpler and cheaper. Here, we show the advantage of using improved 2nd-generation voltage dyes, provide a simple solution to panoramic multi-parametric mapping, and illustrate the application of flash photolysis of caged compounds for studies in the whole heart. For proof of principle, we used the isolated rat whole-heart model. After characterising the blue and green isosbestic points of di-4-ANBDQBS and di-4-ANBDQPQ, respectively, two voltage and calcium mapping systems are described. With two newly custom-made multi-band optical filters, (1) di-4-ANBDQBS and fluo-4 and (2) di-4-ANBDQPQ and rhod-2 mapping are demonstrated. Furthermore, we demonstrate three-parameter mapping using di-4-ANBDQPQ, rhod-2 and NADH. Using off-the-shelf optics and the di-4-ANBDQPQ and rhod-2 combination, we demonstrate panoramic multi-parametric mapping, affording a 360° spatiotemporal record of activity. Finally, local optical perturbation of calcium dynamics in the whole heart is demonstrated using the caged compound, o-nitrophenyl ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (NP-EGTA), with an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED). Calcium maps (heart loaded with di-4-ANBDQPQ and rhod-2) demonstrate successful NP-EGTA loading and local flash photolysis. All imaging systems were built using only a single camera. In conclusion, using novel 2nd-generation voltage dyes, we developed scalable techniques for multi-parametric optical mapping of the whole heart from one point of view and panoramically. In addition to these parameter imaging approaches, we show that it is possible to use caged compounds and ultraviolet LEDs to locally perturb electrophysiological parameters in the whole heart.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 08/2012; 464(4):403-14. · 4.46 Impact Factor