Distribution of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China.
ABSTRACT Yersinia enterocolitica (1,295 strains) was isolated from diarrhea patients, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment. They were studied for epidemiology distribution using bacterial biochemical metabolism tests, their virulence genes, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) sub-typing. The data showed that 416 of the 1,295 strains were pathogenic, where the pathogenic Chinese isolates were of serotypes O:3 and O:9. These two serotypes were found in livestock and poultry, with swine serving as the major reservoir. The geographic distribution of pathogenic isolates was significantly different, where most of the strains were isolated from the cold northern areas, whereas some serotype O:3 strains were recovered from the warm southern areas. By the analysis of the data of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, we find the phenomenon of 'concentric circle distribution' around animal reservoirs and human habitation. The clustering of PFGE showed that the patterns of the pathogenic strains isolated from diarrhea patients were identical compared to those from the animals in the same area, thus, suggesting that the human infection originated from the animals.
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ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Yersinia comprising pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, are zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne intestinal illness in humans. Y. enterocolitica is common in pork production and pork is associated with infections in humans. Therefore, there is a need to reduce the occurrence and spread of these pathogens within the pork production chain. It would be most effective to control enteropathogenic Yersinia at the farm level. However, at present, feasible intervention methods are lacking and more research is needed. The most effective way to prevent the spread of Y. enterocolitica is to buy piglets from Y. enterocolitica-negative farms. At slaughterhouses, the occurrence of enteropathogenic Yersinia can be reduced but not completely removed by slaughter hygiene and changing slaughter methods. After slaughter, it is difficult to control enteropathogenic Yersinia, since they can survive and even multiply during cold storage and under modified atmosphere. In addition, current knowledge and actions in both domestic and professional kitchens are insufficient for the prevention of yersiniosis. The significance of Y. pseudotuberculosis carried by pigs is uncertain. Although data are still lacking for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in many aspects, there is even a greater lack of information regarding Y. pseudotuberculosis in pork production. There is a definite need for further research on these pathogens.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 11/2014; 13(6). · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are important food borne pathogens. However, the presence of competitive microbiota makes the isolation of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis from naturally contaminated foods difficult. We attempted to evaluate the performance of a modified Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin (CIN) agar in the differentiation of Y. enterocolitica from non-Yersinia species, particularly the natural intestinal microbiota. The modified CIN enabled the growth of Y. enterocolitica colonies with the same efficiency as CIN and Luria-Bertani agar. The detection limits of the modified CIN for Y. enterocolitica in culture medium (10 cfu/ml) and in artificially contaminated pork (104 cfu/ml) were also comparable to those of CIN. However, the modified CIN provided a better discrimination of Yersinia colonies from other bacteria exhibiting Yersinia-like colonies on CIN (H2S-producing Citrobacter freundii, C. braakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Providencia rettgeri, and Morganella morganii). The modified CIN exhibited a higher recovery rate of Y. enterocolitica from artificially prepared bacterial cultures and naturally contaminated samples compared with CIN. Our results thus demonstrated that the use of modified CIN may be a valuable means to increase the recovery rate of food borne Yersinia from natural samples, which are usually contaminated by multiple types of bacteria.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e106329. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteric pathogen having six biotypes: 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Different bioserotypes have been associated with varying pathogenicity, and the strains of biotype 1A lack the virulence-associated pYV-bearing genes and were once considered to be avirulent. However, there is growing epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence to suggest some biotype 1A isolates are virulent and can cause gastrointestinal disease. Here, we describe two biotype 1A strains discovered from 3,807 isolates that carry the ail (attachment and invasion locus) gene. The two strains showed unique PFGE patterns compared to all other isolates in the Chinese Y. enterocolitica isolate PFGE database. Strain SDWL-003 isolated from a sheep shared ail sequence identical to A1 pattern, and the foxA (ferrioxamine receptor) sequence was identical to the pathogenic F5 pattern, besides, the PFGE patterns of SDWL-003 was also cluster to pathogenic branch; however it does not attach to or invade Hep-2 cells. The ail sequence of strain 2006RAT isolated from a Microtus fortis showed several mutations compared to other published genomes, and therefore formed an entirely new pathogentic pattern. Though it clustered to non-pathogenic block with foxA sequence polymorphism analysis or PFGE assay, the strain 2006RAT showed adhesion properties. The data here bring new insights into the molecular genetics of Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A, show some isolates of 1A biotype gaining potential pathogenicity using the function of the virulence gene - ail, and indicate the lateral gene transfer of ail virulence genes proceeded between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 07/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor