The objective of the present study was to compare fresh (F) use and the effects of boiling (B) and deep-fat frying (DF) on the leaf of Citrus hystrix on total phenolic content, the types and amounts of flavonoids and their total antioxidant capacities (TAC), as measured by three different assays: oxygen radical absorption capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Boiling decreased TAC values on the three assays. The amount of total flavonoids calculated as aglycone equivalents of eight identified flavonoids (cyanidin, myricetin, peonidin, quercetin, luteolin, hesperetin, apigenin and isorhamnetin) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography was 1,129 (DF), 1,104 (F) and 549 (B) mg/100 g freeze-dried weight (dry matter exclude fat). Hesperetin was the predominant flavonoid. The total phenolic content expressed as grams of gallic acid equivalents/100 grams fresh weight (excluding fat) was 2.0, 1.9 and 1.8 in F, DF and B samples, respectively. These results suggest that method of processing can significantly affect the content of flavonoids and their TAC values.
"Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC, Rutaceae) is a Southeast Asian citrus plant with very strong fragrance . Kaffir lime leaves and fruits are frequently used as a condiment in various Thai and Malaysian recipes to add a tangy flavor to soups and curries . They are also useful for treatment of colds, congestion, and cough. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fresh Thai kaffir lime leaves were subjected to extraction by supercritical carbon
dioxide yielding yellow clear oils which were then analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass
spectrometric technique (GC-MS). The conditions of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE);
pressure, temperature, extraction time, and type and percentage of modifier which gave the
highest yield of the oil were 3,000 psi, 55oC, 15 min, and 10% isopropanol, respectively.
Results from GC-MS analysis revealed 21 identified terpenoids which were classified in the
groups of monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated
sesquiterpenes, each having the number of 3, 5, 9, and 4, respectively. Citronellic acid
(4.5%), nerolidol (2.14%), δ-cadinene (1.49%), citronellal (1.41%) and citronellol (1.39%)
were found as the major constituents in this SFE extract of fresh kaffir lime leaves.
Chiang Mai Journal of Science 01/2013; 40(2):240-247. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to examine fresh and processed (boiled or fried) leaves of Citrus hystrix in terms of total phenolic content, malondialdehyde content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities, the baseline levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in HepG2 cells. The results indicated that fresh C. hystrix leaves possess the higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (22 mg/ml). Pretreatment of C. hystrix leaf extracts decreases GST, SOD, or catalase activity induced by H 2 O 2 , rendering them unsuitable for cancer chemoprevention, superoxide scavenging, or hydrogen peroxide detoxification. A linear relation between the total phenolic content and DPPH or hydroxyl radical activities of the extract was not observed. This study showed that C. hystrix leaf may exert its antioxidative stress by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to HepG2 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the in vitro inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes, the stimulation of insulin secretion, and the in vivo metabolic effects in mice of Citrus medica L. cv Diamante peel extract. The quantitative analysis of selected phytochemicals were determined to investigate their relationship with the biological activities. Citrus extract exhibited an inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 258.7 and 263.2 μg/ml, respectively. Measurements of the effects of peel extract on the mouse insulinoma MIN6 β-cells indicated that it did exert direct stimulatory effects on the exocytotic release of insulin in a concentration-dependent manner. The supplementation of the C. medica cv Diamante was able to reduce plasma glucose (GLU) concentration and lowered the levels of plasma cholesterol (COL) and triglycerides (TG). The obtained results underline the potential health benefits as a result of consuming C. medica cv Diamante and suggest that it could be used as new potential source with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products.
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