Comparison of analgesic efficacy between bilateral superficial and combined (superficial and deep) cervical plexus block administered before thyroid surgery.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block and combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block for incision pain, headache and posterior neck pain after thyroidectomy.
Ninety patients were divided into a control group (group C, n = 30), a bilateral superficial cervical plexus group (group S, n = 30) and a bilateral combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block group (group CO, n = 30). Before general anaesthesia, we performed bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (18 ml) and combined superficial (14 ml) and deep (4 ml) cervical plexus block with 0.25% bupivacaine. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol-remifentanil-N2O-O2.
The average concentration of remifentanil was significantly reduced in group S compared with group C and group CO (1.1 +/- 0.3, 1.8 +/- 0.4, 1.8 +/- 0.7 ng ml, respectively; P < 0.05). The incision pain at rest and on swallowing were significantly reduced at 0, 2 and 4 h in group S compared with group C (P < 0.05). Headache showed a tendency to be reduced in group S and group CO, but the posterior neck pain was not different among the three groups. After surgery, the opioid and nonopioid requirement was significantly reduced in group S (P < 0.05). There were fewer side effects and greater patients' satisfaction in group S.
Superficial cervical plexus block is a more effective technique than combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block to reduce the pain during and immediately after thyroidectomy.
- SourceAvailable from: Vilvapathy Senguttuvan Karthikeyan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As thyroid surgery is being performed as an ambulatory procedure, recent studies concerning post thyroidectomy analgesia have focused on regional techniques such as bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) and bilateral combined superficial and deep cervical plexus block. But, data regarding the efficacy of BSCPB are controversial. Hence we compared the efficacy of BSCPB with 0.25% bupivacaine with and without clonidine in thyroidectomy, as preventative analgesia. METHODS: Patients (n = 60) undergoing thyroidectomy were randomized into 3 groups (n = 20 each) to receive BSCPB using 15 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine (group B) or 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 μg/kg clonidine (group BC) or 0.9% normal saline (group S) on each side after induction. Intraoperative (fentanyl) and postoperative (morphine) analgesic requirements were assessed. Postoperative pain scores, nausea, vomiting, and sedation were assessed for 24 hours. RESULTS: Intraoperative fentanyl requirement was significantly lesser in groups B and BC (P = 0.012). Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower in group BC (compared to S) at 2 (P = 0.002), 4 (P = 0.016), and 8 (P = 0.012) hours. First analgesic requirement time (min) was significantly higher in groups B and BC (P = 0.002), and postoperative morphine requirement was significantly lower in groups B and BC (P = 0.001). Incidence of postoperative vomiting was significantly reduced in group BC (P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: BSCPB with 0.25% bupivacaine with or without clonidine is effective in reducing both intraoperative and postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in thyroidectomy, and adding clonidine to bupivacaine reduces postoperative vomiting.Pain Practice 12/2012; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) and general anesthesia is recommended for thyroid surgery. Proof of the efficacy of this combination remains weak. Furthermore, data on the safety of this regimen are lacking. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BSCPB as an adjunct to general anesthesia in patients receiving thyroid surgery was performed. A meta-analysis of RCT was performed that included interventional groups evaluating the efficacy of BSCPB 6 and 24 hours after thyroid surgery. Eight RCT, including a total of 799 patients (463 who underwent BSCPB and 336 controls), were analyzed. A meta-analysis demonstrated a reduction in pain scores 6 hours (Hedges' g: -0.46 [95% CI: -0.74 to -0.19]; p=0.001) and 24 hours postoperatively (Hedges' g: -0.49 [95% CI: -0.71 to -0.27]; p<0.001) in patients who had undergone BSCPB. The relative risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.58 to 1.09, p=0.159) in patients receiving BSCPB. Procedure-related adverse events were reported in three of the 476 patients who had undergone BSCPB (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.1% to 2.0%). These three patients had transient paresis of the brachial plexus, combined with a diaphragmatic paresis in one case, and all spontaneously resolved. The combination of BSCPB and general anesthesia has a significant benefit in reducing pain 6 and 24 hours after thyroid surgery. However, the effect on pain reduction is too small to be of clinical relevance. Although it is a safe procedure, the existing evidence allows for no recommendation concerning the application of BSCPB in thyroid surgery. Further trials should evaluate a dose-response relationship and the incidence of PONV with this regimen.Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 12/2011; 22(1):44-52. · 2.60 Impact Factor