Mutations Leu427, Asn428, and Leu431 residues within transmembrane domain-I-segment 6 attenuate ginsenoside-mediated L-type Ca(2+) channel current inhibitions.
ABSTRACT Many lines of evidences have shown that Panax ginseng exhibits beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems. We previously demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg(3) (Rg(3)), one of active ingredients of Panax ginseng, inhibits Ca(2+) channel currents in a stereospecific manner and affects the steady-state activation but not inactivation. This points a possibility that Rg(3) regulates Ca(2+) channels through specific interaction site(s) for Ca(2+) influx inhibition through Ca(2+) channels. However, it was not known how Rg(3) interacts with Ca(2+) channel proteins. In the current study, we sought to identify these site(s) in Xenopus oocytes expressing cardiac wild-type and mutant L(alpha(1C))-type Ca(2+) channels using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. To this end, we assessed how various point mutations of the L-type Ca(2+) channel affected the Rg(3) action. Mutations of L427R, N428R and L431K in transmembrane domain-I-segment 6 (IS6) of the channel significantly attenuated the Rg(3) action and caused rightward shifts in dose-response curves. Rg(3) treatment produced a negative shift in the inactivation voltage but did not alter the steady-state activation voltage, and none of the mutant channels affected the Rg(3)-induced negative shift of inactivation voltage. Rg(3) had no effects on inactivation time constant in wild-type and mutant channels. These results indicate that Rg(3) inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channel currents is attenuated by mutations of Leu427, Asn428 and Leu431 in transmembrane IS6 residues. Leu427, Asn428 and Leu431 residues of the L-type Ca(2+) channel play important roles in the Rg(3) effect on channel properties.
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ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides are low molecular weight glycosides found in ginseng that exhibit neuroprotective effects through inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor channel activity. Ginsenosides, like other natural compounds, are metabolized by gastric juices and intestinal microorganisms to produce ginsenoside metabolites. However, little is known about how ginsenoside metabolites regulate NMDA receptor channel activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ginsenoside metabolites, such as compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT), on oocytes that heterologously express the rat NMDA receptor. NMDA receptor-mediated ion current (I(NMDA)) was measured using the 2-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with cRNAs encoding NMDA receptor subunits, PPT, but not CK or PPD, reversibly inhibited I(NMDA) in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) for PPT on I(NMDA) was 48.1±4.6 µM, was non-competitive with NMDA, and was independent of the membrane holding potential. These results demonstrate the possibility that PPT interacts with the NMDA receptor, although not at the NMDA binding site, and that the inhibitory effects of PPT on I(NMDA) could be related to ginseng-mediated neuroprotection.Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/2012; 16(2):113-8. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer, has long been used clinically in China to treat various diseases. Multiple effects of ginseng, such as antitumor, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antioxidative, antidiabetic and antihypertensive have been confirmed by modern medicine. Recently, the clinical utilization of ginseng to treat heart diseases has increased dramatically. The roles of ginseng in protecting heart are foci for research in modern medical science and have been partially demonstrated, and the mechanisms of protection against coronary artery disease, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, cardiac energy metabolism, cardiac contractility, and arrhythmia are being uncovered progressively. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the complex mechanisms by which ginseng protects heart. All such studies will provide evidence of ginseng's clinical application, international promotion, and new drug development.Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 07/2012; 18(7):548-55. · 1.06 Impact Factor