Distinct Cerebellar Contributions to Intrinsic Connectivity Networks

Service de NeuroImagerie, Hôpital des Quinze-Vingts, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, 75012 Paris, France.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 08/2009; 29(26):8586-94. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1868-09.2009
Source: PubMed


Convergent data from various scientific approaches strongly implicate cerebellar systems in nonmotor functions. The functional anatomy of these systems has been pieced together from disparate sources, such as animal studies, lesion studies in humans, and structural and functional imaging studies in humans. To better define this distinct functional anatomy, in the current study we delineate the role of the cerebellum in several nonmotor systems simultaneously and in the same subjects using resting state functional connectivity MRI. Independent component analysis was applied to resting state data from two independent datasets to identify common cerebellar contributions to several previously identified intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) involved in executive control, episodic memory/self-reflection, salience detection, and sensorimotor function. We found distinct cerebellar contributions to each of these ICNs. The neocerebellum participates in (1) the right and left executive control networks (especially crus I and II), (2) the salience network (lobule VI), and (3) the default-mode network (lobule IX). Little to no overlap was detected between these cerebellar regions and the sensorimotor cerebellum (lobules V-VI). Clusters were also located in pontine and dentate nuclei, prominent points of convergence for cerebellar input and output, respectively. The results suggest that the most phylogenetically recent part of the cerebellum, particularly crus I and II, make contributions to parallel cortico-cerebellar loops involved in executive control, salience detection, and episodic memory/self-reflection. The largest portions of the neocerebellum take part in the executive control network implicated in higher cognitive functions such as working memory.

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    • "Recent work analyzing subcortical contributions to the ICNs has paid little attention to cerebellar connectivity. Those studies that have assessed cerebellar connectivity with the ICNs have been promising, demonstrating cerebellar contributions to all functional networks (Habas et al. 2009). Importantly, these studies have shown that regions of the cerebellum contribute distinctly to individual networks, with some regions such as cerebellar Crus I, Crus II and lobule VI contributing specifically to cortical networks such as the executive control and salience networks (Habas et al. 2009; O'Reilly et al. 2010; Bucker et al. 2011; Bernard et al. 2012). "
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    • "The existence of a direct cerebello-limbic pathway might overcome the objection of Strick et al. (2009) who argued that a big criticism about the hypothesis of a cerebello-limbic functional interaction was the lack of a defined anatomical substrate allowing the connection between the cerebellar output and the limbic system; indeed to date there are no sufficient anatomical literature findings supporting that all the effects on behavior be induced by cerebellar stimulation (Strick et al., 2009). Baumann and Mattingley argued that cerebellar connectivity with limbic networks wasn't deeply investigated, although fMRI studies demonstrated several cortico-cerebellar connections in humans (Habas et al., 2009; O'Reilly et al., 2010; Buckner et al., 2011; Baumann and Mattingley, 2012) confirming its role in non-motor processes. Finally Rochefort et al. (2013) suggested that many data support the hypothesis that a direct connection between cerebellum and hippocampus exists, despite the fact that it was never demonstrated. "
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    • "Global health status score (range 0–10) obtained from dichotomous rating (presence or absence) of diabetes, chronic heart failure , arthritis, hypertension, depression, stroke, Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, angina, and myocardial infarction; RBANS: Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; NW: normal pace walk; WWT: walking while talking r Yuan et al. r r 4 r lateralized fronto-parietal network also includes regions of the right cerebellum. This is consistent with anatomical and functional connections, as evidenced by recent restingstate studies that have shown cross-lateral connectivity between regions of the cerebellum and the prefrontal and posterior-parietal cortices [Habas et al., 2009; Krienen and Buckner, 2009; O'Reilly et al., 2010]. Fronto-parietal networks were strongly lateralized in the resting-state literature [Smith et al., 2009]. "
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