Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurologic Monitoring in Surgery Involving a Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib for Early-Onset Spinal Deformity
ABSTRACT The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) device is used in the treatment of thoracic insufficiency syndrome and certain types of early-onset spinal deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of neurologic injury during surgical procedures involving use of the VEPTR and to determine the efficacy of intraoperative spinal cord neuromonitoring.
Data were collected prospectively during a multicenter study. Surgical procedures were divided into three categories: primary device implantation, device exchange, and device lengthening. Further retrospective evaluation was undertaken in cases of neurologic injury or changes detected with neuromonitoring.
There were 1736 consecutive VEPTR procedures at six centers: 327 (in 299 patients) consisted of a primary device implantation, 224 were a device exchange, and 1185 were a device lengthening. Perioperative clinical neurologic injury was noted in eight (0.5%) of the 1736 cases: these injuries were identified after five (1.5%) of the 327 procedures for primary device implantation, three (1.3%) of the 224 device exchanges, and none of the 1185 device-lengthening procedures. Of the eight cases of neurologic injury, six involved the upper extremity and two involved the lower extremity. The neurologic deficit was temporary in seven patients and permanent in one patient, who had persistent neurogenic arm and hand pain. Intraoperative neuromonitoring demonstrated changes during six (0.3%) of the 1736 procedures: five (1.5%) of the 327 procedures for primary device implantation and one (0.08%) of the 1185 device-lengthening procedures. The surgery was altered in all six cases, with resolution of the monitoring changes in five cases and persistent signal changes and a neurologic deficit (upper-extremity brachial plexopathy) in one. Two patients had false-negative results of monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials, and one had false-negative results of monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials during implant surgery; two had a brachial plexopathy and one had monoplegia postoperatively, with all three recovering.
Neurologic injury during VEPTR surgery occurs much more frequently in the upper extremities than in the lower extremities. The rates of potential neurologic injuries (neurologic injuries plus instances of changes detected by monitoring) during primary implantation of the VEPTR (2.8%) and during exchange of the VEPTR (1.3%) justify the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring of the upper and lower extremities during those procedures. As neuromonitoring did not demonstrate any changes in children without a previous VEPTR-related monitoring change and there were no neurologic injuries during more than 1000 VEPTR-lengthening procedures, intraoperative neuromonitoring may not be necessary during those procedures in children without a history of a neurologic deficit during VEPTR surgery.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early-onset scoliosis, when left untreated, leads to severe deformity. Until the last decade, treatment of progressive curves in young children often consisted of definitive spinal fusion. The recognition of thoracic insufficiency syndrome associated with definitive early fusion has led to the development of new surgical techniques developed to preserve spinal and thoracic growth in young patients with progressive scoliosis. We asked: (1) Does early definitive fusion arrest progression of spinal deformity? To what extent does early definitive spinal fusion influence (2) pulmonary function and (3) thoracic growth? A Medline search of the published literature on early-onset scoliosis, congenital scoliosis, and infantile scoliosis between 2008 and 2010 was performed on spinal fusion for early-onset scoliosis, focusing on studies reporting pulmonary function at followup. Spinal deformity is apparently not well controlled by early fusion since revision surgery has been required in 24% to 39% of patients who underwent presumed definitive fusion in early childhood. Restrictive pulmonary disease, defined as forced vital capacity less than 50% of normal, occurs in 43% to 64% of patients who undergo early fusion surgery with those children who have extensive thoracic fusions and whose fusions involve the proximal thoracic spine at highest risk. Thoracic growth after early surgery is an average of 50% of that seen in children with scoliosis who do not have early surgery. Diminished thoracic spinal height correlates with decreased forced vital capacity. The literature does not support routine definitive fusion of thoracic spinal deformity at an early age in children with scoliosis.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 10/2010; 469(5):1323-9. DOI:10.1007/s11999-010-1622-z · 2.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Scoliotic deformity in young children is a challenge for the spinal surgeon. Though traditional spinal correction and fusion techniques can improve these deformities, they inhibit growth of the spine. Nonfusion technologies are an effective approach to this problem. They not only correct the spinal deformity, but also allow the spine to keep growing and developing. These techniques include the growing rod, stapling, pedicle screw tethering, the vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR), and multi-vertebrae wedge osteotomy. This is a review of advances in nonfusion techniques for the treatment of scoliosis in children.Orthopaedic Surgery 11/2010; 2(4):254-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1757-7861.2010.00096.x
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.Spine 12/2010; 35(25):2193-204. DOI:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181f070b5 · 2.45 Impact Factor