Article

Role of deep brain stimulation in modulating memory formation and recall.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
Neurosurgical FOCUS (Impact Factor: 2.14). 08/2009; 27(1):E3. DOI: 10.3171/2009.4.FOCUS0975
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an increasingly popular tool for treating a variety of medically refractory neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson disease, essential tremor, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Several targets have been identified for ablation or stimulation based on their anatomical location and presumed function. Areas such as the subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and thalamus, for example, are believed to play a key role in motor control and execution, and they are commonly used in the treatment of motor disorders. Limbic structures such as the cingulate cortex and ventral striatum, believed to be important in motivation, emotion, and higher cognition, have also been targeted for treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. In all of these settings, DBS is largely aimed at addressing the deleterious aspects of these diseases. In Parkinson disease, for example, DBS has been used to reduce rigidity and tremor, whereas in obsessive-compulsive disorder it has been used to limit compulsive behavior. More recently, however, attention has also turned to the potential use of DBS for enhancing or improving otherwise nonpathological aspects of cognitive function. This review explores the potential role of DBS in augmenting memory formation and recall, and the authors discuss recent studies and future trends in this emerging field.

0 Followers
 · 
79 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the last quarter of a century, DBS has become an established neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and tremors. Improved understanding of brain circuitries and their involvement in various neurological and psychiatric illnesses, coupled with the safety of DBS and its exquisite role as a tool for ethical study of the human brain, have unlocked new opportunities for this technology, both for future therapies and in research. Serendipitous discoveries and advances in structural and functional imaging are providing abundant "new" brain targets for an ever-increasing number of pathologies, leading to investigations of DBS in diverse neurological, psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive conditions. Trials and "proof of concept" studies of DBS are underway in pain, epilepsy, tinnitus, OCD, depression, and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, as well as in eating disorders, addiction, cognitive decline, consciousness, and autonomic states. In parallel, ongoing technological development will provide pulse generators with longer battery longevity, segmental electrode designs allowing a current steering, and the possibility to deliver "on-demand" stimulation based on closed-loop concepts. The future of brain stimulation is certainly promising, especially for movement disorders-that will remain the main indication for DBS for the foreseeable future-and probably for some psychiatric disorders. However, brain stimulation as a technique may be at risk of gliding down a slippery slope: Some reports indicate a disturbing trend with suggestions that future DBS may be proposed for enhancement of memory in healthy people, or as a tool for "treatment" of "antisocial behavior" and for improving "morality." © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 11/2013; 28(13). DOI:10.1002/mds.25665 · 5.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuromodulation using deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an established therapy for the treatment of certain disorders such as Parkinson's disease and tremors. Recent advances in surgical and imaging techniques further decrease the surgical risk associated with these procedures. Symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and gait disturbances can be significantly controlled with DBS. This results in an opportunity to decrease anti-parkinsonism medications, and their dyskinetic side-effects. Following the success of DBS in the management of movement disorders, the role of this therapy is being extensively studied in more complex disorders that involve cognition and behavior. The inherent complexity in cognitive circuitry makes neuromodulation using DBS more difficult than in movement disorders. The goal of DBS surgery in these diseases is not only to slow the cognitive decline, but also restoration of function and ultimately improvement in the quality of life. DBS as a treatment for patients with advanced dementia holds significant promise in delaying or reversing the progressive cognitive decline by enhancing connectivity in the memory networks. In appropriately selected patients this potentially reversible surgical therapy can lead to a significant improvement in the quality of life and reduce the burden on patients, families and the healthcare system. This review focuses on the recent and future studies involving neuromodulation for cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.11.040 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation, a technique whereby electrodes are implanted into specific brain regions to modulate their activity, has been mainly used to treat movement disorders. More recently this technique has been proposed for the treatment of drug addiction, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dementia. The nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus, central nuclei within the limbic system, have been studied as potential targets for neuromodulation for the treatment of drug addiction, PTSD, and dementia, respectively. As the scope of neuromodulation grows to include disorders of mood and thought, new ethical and philosophic challenges that require multidisciplinary discussion and cooperation are emerging.
    Neurosurgery clinics of North America 01/2014; 25(1):137-145. DOI:10.1016/j.nec.2013.08.004 · 1.54 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
23 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014