A screen of SLC1A1 for OCD-related alleles
ABSTRACT SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal and epithelial glutamate transporter, is a promising candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we conducted capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) screen for all 12 identified exons, including all coding regions and approximately 50 bp of flanking introns of the human SLC1A1 in 378 OCD-affected individuals. Full sequencing was completed on samples that showed an aberrant SSCP tracing for identification of the underlying sequence variants. Our aim was to determine if there are differences in the frequencies of relatively common alleles, or rare functional alleles, in 378 OCD cases and 281 ethnically matched controls. We identified one nonsynonymous coding SNP (c.490A > G, T164A) and three synonymous coding SNP (c.81G > C, A27A; c.414A > G, T138T; c.1110T > C, T370T) in case samples. We found no statistical differences in genotype and allele frequencies of common cSNPs in SLC1A1 between the OCD cases and controls. The rare variant T164A was found only in one family. Further investigation of this variant is necessary to determine whether and how it is related to OCD. There was no other evidence of significant accumulation of deleterious coding mutations in SLC1A1 in the OCD cases.
- SourceAvailable from: Lawrence S Kegeles[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), have two limitations: incomplete symptom relief and 2-3 months lag time before clinically meaningful improvement. New medications with faster onset are needed. Because converging evidence suggests a role for the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of OCD, we tested whether a single dose of ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, could achieve rapid anti-obsessional effects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, drug-free OCD adults (n=15) with near constant obsessions received two 40-minute intravenous infusions, one of saline and one of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg), spaced at least 1 week apart. The OCD visual analogue scale (OCD-VAS) and the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) were used to assess OCD symptoms. Unexpectedly, ketamine's effects within the crossover design showed significant (p<0.005) carryover effects (ie, lasting longer than 1 week). As a result, only the first-phase data were used in additional analyses. Specifically, those receiving ketamine (n=8) reported significant improvement in obsessions (measured by OCD-VAS) during the infusion compared with subjects receiving placebo (n=7). One week post-infusion, 50% of those receiving ketamine (n=8) met criteria for treatment response (35% Y-BOCS reduction) versus 0% of those receiving placebo (n=7). Rapid anti-OCD effects from a single intravenous dose of ketamine can persist for at least one week in some OCD patients with constant intrusive thoughts. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate that a drug affecting glutamate neurotransmission can reduce OCD symptoms without the presence of an SRI and is consistent with a glutamatergic hypothesis of OCD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 19 June 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.150.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2013; 38(12). DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.150 · 7.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and often debilitating neuropsychiatric condition characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts (obsessions), repetitive ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) and excessive anxiety. While the neurobiology and etiology of OCD has not been fully elucidated, there is growing evidence that disrupted neurotransmission of glutamate within corticalstriatal-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry plays a role in OCD pathogenesis. This review summarizes the findings from neuroimaging, animal model, candidate gene and treatment studies in the context of glutamate signaling dysfunction in OCD. First, studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed demonstrating altered glutamate concentrations in the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex of patients with OCD. Second, knockout mouse models, particularly the DLGAP3 and Sltrk5 knockout mouse models, display remarkably similar phenotypes of compulsive grooming behavior associated with glutamate signaling dysfunction. Third, candidate gene studies have identified associations between variants in glutamate system genes and OCD, particularly for SLC1A1 which has been shown to be associated with OCD in five independent studies. This converging evidence for a role of glutamate in OCD has led to the development of novel treatment strategies involving glutamatergic compounds, particularly riluzole and memantine. We conclude the review by outlining a glutamate hypothesis for OCD, which we hope will inform further research into etiology and treatment for this severe neuropsychiatric condition.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 02/2012; 100(4):726-35. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2011.10.007 · 2.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amino acids are essential building blocks of all mammalian cells. In addition to their role in protein synthesis, amino acids play an important role as energy fuels, precursors for a variety of metabolites and as signalling molecules. Disorders associated with the malfunction of amino acid transporters reflect the variety of roles that they fulfil in human physiology. Mutations of brain amino acid transporters affect neuronal excitability. Mutations of renal and intestinal amino acid transporters affect whole-body homoeostasis, resulting in malabsorption and renal problems. Amino acid transporters that are integral parts of metabolic pathways reduce the function of these pathways. Finally, amino acid uptake is essential for cell growth, thereby explaining their role in tumour progression. The present review summarizes the involvement of amino acid transporters in these roles as illustrated by diseases resulting from transporter malfunction.Biochemical Journal 06/2011; 436(2):193-211. DOI:10.1042/BJ20101912 · 4.78 Impact Factor