Suicidal risk factors and completed suicide: meta-analyses based on psychological autopsy studies

Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, 8-1-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-0012, Japan.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 10/2008; 13(5):243-56. DOI: 10.1007/s12199-008-0037-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the effects of common risk factors for suicide by meta-analyses using data extracted from studies based on the psychological autopsy method. We focused on five common risk factors of suicide: substance-related disorders, mood disorders, adverse marital status, adverse employment status, and self-harm behaviors. A total of 24 articles were identified from MEDLINE in which the crude odds ratio (OR) could be calculated for the above five risk factors through 30 April 2007, using such search keywords as "suicide," "psychological autopsy," and "case-control study." Overall, both substance-related disorders [OR = 5.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.30-8.31] and mood disorders [OR = 13.42; 95% CI = 8.05-22.37] were strongly associated with suicidal risk. Suicidal attempt and deliberate self-harm, which can directly lead to completed suicide, have been shown to be very strongly associated with suicidal risk [OR = 16.33; 95% CI = 7.51-35.52]. Effects of social factors such as adverse marital and employment status were relatively small. As substance-related disorders and mood disorders were strongly associated with an increased risk of completed suicide, the comorbidity of these two disorders should be paid a maximum attention. The effective prevention of suicide depends on whether we can successfully incorporate these personal factors as well as social factors into an adequate multi-factorial model.

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    ABSTRACT: Effectiveness of community facilitator training in improving knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in relation to depression and suicidal behavior: Results of the OSPI-Europe intervention in four European countries, Journal of Affective Disorders, This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.052 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: People with substance use disorders who present with suicidal behavior are at high risk of subsequent suicide. There are few effective treatments specifically tailored for this population that diminish this risk. We aimed to assess the impact of an opportunistic cognitive behavioral intervention package (OCB) among adult outpatients with a substance use and comorbid suicide risk. Method: A randomized controlled trial was conducted across 2 sites in which 185 patients presenting with suicide risk and concurrent substance use received either OCB (8 sessions plus group therapy) or treatment as usual (TAU) over a 6-month period. Primary outcomes were suicidal behavior (suicide attempts, suicidal intent and presence of suicide ideation) and level of drug and alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were changes in psychological measures of suicide ideation, depression, anxiety, and self-efficacy. Results: There were no completed suicides, and only 2 participants reported suicide attempts at follow-up. Suicide ideation, alcohol consumption, and cannabis use fell over time but no significant Treatment × Time differences were found. There were also no differences between OCB and TAU over time on psychological measures of depression, anxiety, or self-efficacy. Suicide ideation at 6-month follow-up was predicted by cannabis use and higher scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale at baseline. Conclusions: The opportunistic cognitive behavioral intervention package did not appear to be beneficial in reducing suicide ideation, drug and alcohol consumption, or depression relative to treatment as usual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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