Article

The complete genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: an intracellular endosymbiont of marine wood-boring bivalves (shipworms).

Ocean Genome Legacy Inc, Ipswich, MA, USA.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(7):e6085. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006085
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms). This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2-40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100). However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes) of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism) and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection). These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production of cellulose-derived biofuels.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
325 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary form only given, as follows. For heavy ion beams to be successful as a driver for inertial confinement fusion targets it must be possible to project a very high beam over several meters in the reactor chamber onto a spot a few millimeters in diameter. This is physically possible with ions of mass A ~ 200, energy ~ 10 GeV, and very low charge state 1-2. However, the technology is easier if beam space charge effects can be reduced without excessive increase in beam emittance. Using an electromagnetic, r-z PIC (particle-in-cell) code called BICrz, the author is modeling the processes by which an unneutralized ion beam from the accelerator becomes partially neutralized, by entraining electrons from a preexisting plasma cloud or produced by collisional ionization of chamber vapor, or perhaps other mechanisms. With focal spot size in mind, the degree of neutralization at the front and back of the pulse, and nonlinearity of the radial fields are measured
    Plasma Science, 1993. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts., 1993 IEEE International Conference on; 07/1993
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96248. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
34 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014