Botox Therapy for Ischemic Digits
ABSTRACT Treating patients with Raynaud's phenomenon who have chronic pain and ulcerations is extremely challenging. Unrelenting pain can lead to dysfunction and disuse, rendering the patient debilitated and/or chronically depressed. Pharmacologic vasodilators and surgical sympathectomies offer variable benefits. Outcomes of symptomatic patients treated with botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injections for Raynaud's phenomenon are presented.
A retrospective study focused on patient outcomes was performed on 19 patients diagnosed with Raynaud's phenomenon. Patients suffered from chronic ischemic hand pain. All patients had vascular studies to rule out occlusive disease. Fifty to 100 units of Botox were injected into the palm around each involved neurovascular bundle. Preinjection and postinjection laser Doppler scanning was performed on most patients to measure blood flow.
Sixteen of 19 patients (84 percent) reported pain reduction at rest. Thirteen patients reported immediate relief; three reported more gradual pain reduction over 1 to 2 months. Three patients had no or minimal pain relief. Tissue perfusion results demonstrated a marked change in blood flow (-48.15 percent to 425 percent) to the digits. All patients with chronic finger ulcers healed within 60 days. Most patients [n = 12 (63 percent)] remained pain-free (13 to 59 months) with a single-injection schedule. Four patients (21 percent) required repeated injections because of recurrent pain.
Vascular function is abnormal in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. Although its mechanism is unknown, Botox yielded a distinct improvement in perfusion and reduction in pain in patients failing conservative management. Continued research may lead to more specific and reliable treatment for Raynaud's patients.
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ABSTRACT: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), an episodic vasospasm of the peripheral arteries, is quite common in general population. The current therapies of RP are limited by efficacy, side effects, and polypharmacy concerns. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) local injections have been reported for the treatment of RP, but the injection sites, concentration and dose of BTX-A were different from each other in previous trials. In addition, so far, there have been no reports concerning local injection of BTX-A in Asian RP patients. Ten patients with RP in China were included in this retrospective study. All the patients had intractable pain and were non-responsive to conservative and/or medical therapy. A patterned BTX-A injection was performed in RP patients, guided by ultrasonography. BTX-A was injected as 20 u/ml devoid of preservatives. Outcomes were measured by ultrasonography, surface temperature, visual analog scale (VAS) for clinical symptoms (pain, numbness, stiffness and swelling), and changes in ulcers or gangrene. Overall, a great improvement in artery flow velocity (P < 0.01), surface temperature (P < 0.01), ulcer and VAS for clinical symptoms, was observed after BTX-A local injection. Complications were very rarely found, and no patients complained of hand weakness and bruise. BTX-A patterned injection guided by ultrasonography might be a useful therapeutic tool in the management of intractable RP.Neurological Sciences 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10072-015-2084-6 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Raynaud phenomenon causes progressively decreasing blood flow to the extremities, resulting from an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Treatment options include biofeedback, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, calcium channel inhibitors, botulinum toxin injection, or surgical sympathectomy. The authors propose fat grafting to the hands as a method to delay progression of the disease. Methods: Indications included symptomatic Raynaud phenomenon with failure of previous management. Fat is harvested from abdominal depots. Approximately 30 ml of decanted fat is injected by means of blunt cannulae: 10 to 15 ml in the dorsum of the hand, 2 to 3 ml in the snuffbox, 1 to 2 ml in each dorsal webspace, 3 to 4 ml along the superficial palmar arch, 1 to 2 ml in volar webspaces 2 to 4, and 2 to 3 ml in the first webspace. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative laser speckle imaging study to assess changes in perfusion. Results: A total of 13 patients were treated (21 hands). Twelve patients had undergone prior botulinum toxin injection, and 11 patients had prior sympathectomies. Findings included reduced pain (average reduction, 6.86 of 10 to 2.38 of 10), fewer cold attacks, improved skin and soft-tissue texture, decrease in ulcerations, and patient-reported improved function. Three patients had no changes. Increased blood flow per imaging was noted in five of 11 hands tested. Six patients had decreased readings on laser imaging. None of the laser speckle imaging changes were statistically significant, and they did not correlate clinically. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Preliminary results of fat grafting to the hands of patients with Raynaud phenomenon revealed improved symptomatology with evidence suggestive of measurably increased perfusion in some cases. Fat grafting may benefit the management of this patient population.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 01/2014; 133(5). DOI:10.1097/PRS.0000000000000104 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) blocks the release of acetylcholine vesicles into the synaptic space, and has been clinically used for aesthetic indications, neuromuscular disorders and hyperhidrosis. Several studies have demonstrated that BTX-A enhanced the blood flow and improved ischemia in animal models. Our objective was to assess the effects of BTX-A on cutaneous ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries, mimicking decubitus ulcers. The administration of BTX-A in I/R areas significantly inhibited the formation of decubitus-like ulcer in cutaneous I/R injury mouse model. The number of CD31(+) vessels and αSMA(+) pericytes or myofibroblasts in wounds were significantly increased in the I/R mice treated with BTX-A. The hypoxic area and the number of oxidative stress-associated DNA-damaged cells and apoptotic cells in the I/R sites were reduced by BTX-A administration. In an in vitro assay, BTX-A significantly prevented the oxidant-induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the administration of BTX-A completely suppressed the ulcer formation in an intermittent short-time cutaneous I/R injury model. These results suggest that BTX-A might have protective effects against ulcer formation after cutaneous I/R injury by enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting hypoxia-induced cellular damage. Exogenous application of BTX-A might have therapeutic potential for cutaneous I/R injuries.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9072. DOI:10.1038/srep09072 · 5.08 Impact Factor