Epigenetic regulation of the alternatively activated macrophage phenotype.
ABSTRACT Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages play critical roles in diverse chronic diseases, including parasite infections, cancer, and allergic responses. However, little is known about the acquisition and maintenance of their phenotype. We report that M2-macrophage marker genes are epigenetically regulated by reciprocal changes in histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4) and histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation; and the latter methylation marks are removed by the H3K27 demethylase Jumonji domain containing 3 (Jmjd3). We found that continuous interleukin-4 (IL-4) treatment leads to decreased H3K27 methylation, at the promoter of M2 marker genes, and a concomitant increase in Jmjd3 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-4-dependent Jmjd3 expression is mediated by STAT6, a major transcription factor of IL-4-mediated signaling. After IL-4 stimulation, activated STAT6 is increased and binds to consensus sites at the Jmjd3 promoter. Increased Jmjd3 contributes to the decrease of H3K27 dimethylation and trimethylation (H3K27me2/3) marks as well as the transcriptional activation of specific M2 marker genes. The decrease in H3K27me2/3 and increase in Jmjd3 recruitment were confirmed by in vivo studies using a Schistosoma mansoni egg-challenged mouse model, a well-studied system known to support an M2 phenotype. Collectively, these data indicate that chromatin remodeling is mechanistically important in the acquisition of the M2-macrophage phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Monocytes and macrophages play pivotal roles in inflammation and homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that dynamic programing of macrophages and monocytes may give rise to distinct “memory” states. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a classical pattern recognition molecule, dynamically programs innate immune responses. Emerging studies have revealed complex dynamics of cellular responses to LPS, with high doses causing acute, resolving inflammation, while lower doses are associated with low-grade and chronic non-resolving inflammation. These phenomena hint at dynamic complexities of intra-cellular signaling circuits downstream of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this review, we examine pathological effects of varying LPS doses with respect to the dynamics of innate immune responses and key molecular regulatory circuits responsible for these effects.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 5. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00680
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ABSTRACT: Myeloid cells are crucial effectors of the innate immune response and important regulators of adaptive immunity. The differentiation and activation of myeloid cells requires the timely regulation of gene expression; this depends on the interplay of a variety of elements, including transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic control involves histone modifications and DNA methylation, and is coupled to lineage-specifying transcription factors, upstream signalling pathways and external factors released in the bone marrow, blood and tissue environments. In this Review, we highlight key epigenetic events controlling myeloid cell biology, focusing on those related to myeloid cell differentiation, the acquisition of myeloid identity and innate immune memory.Nature reviews. Immunology 12/2014; 15(1):7-17. DOI:10.1038/nri3777 · 33.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic factors have been implicated in the regulation of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. Jmjd3 plays a role in many biological processes, but its in vivo function in T-cell differentiation remains unknown. Here we report that Jmjd3 ablation promotes CD4(+) T-cell differentiation into Th2 and Th17 cells in the small intestine and colon, and inhibits T-cell differentiation into Th1 cells under different cytokine-polarizing conditions and in a Th1-dependent colitis model. Jmjd3 deficiency also restrains the plasticity of the conversion of Th2, Th17 or Treg cells to Th1 cells. The skewing of T-cell differentiation is concomitant with changes in the expression of key transcription factors and cytokines. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 levels in Jmjd3-deficient cells are correlated with altered gene expression through interactions with specific transcription factors. Our results identify Jmjd3 as an epigenetic factor in T-cell differentiation via changes in histone methylation and target gene expression.Nature Communications 12/2014; 5:5780. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6780 · 10.74 Impact Factor