Establishment of the Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
ABSTRACT An arterial stiffness parameter, the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), has been developed. CAVI is adjusted for BP and can be used to measure arterial stiffness with little influence of BP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility, validity, and clinical usefulness of CAVI among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), who often have elevated BP during measurement.
Overall, 543 consecutive patients with OSA were studied. CAVI was automatically calculated from the pulse volume record, BP, and the vascular length from the heart to the ankle. First, CAVI was measured three times on different days in 25 patients to evaluate its reproducibility. Second, the correlation between CAVI and BP was assessed. Third, patients were classified into two groups (mild OSA or moderate-to-severe OSA), and the CAVIs of these groups were compared. Fourth, the correlation between CAVI and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was also assessed in 74 patients.
The mean coefficient of variation was 2.8. CAVI demonstrated weak or no correlations with BP (with systolic BP, r = 0.184; with diastolic BP, r = 0.223). Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA (n = 469) had a significantly greater CAVI than patients with mild OSA (p = 0.034). CAVI was positively correlated with IMT (r = 0.487).
The measurement of CAVI demonstrated good reproducibility and was not affected by the BP during measurement. Additionally, CAVI was positively correlated with another arteriosclerosis indicator. CAVI was higher in patients with more severe OSA and is regarded as a clinically useful index for the progression of vascular damage.
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ABSTRACT: AbstractAims/IntroductionAlthough arteriosclerotic diseases have been reported to be frequently complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM), a detailed relationship between hyperglycemia and arterial stiffness has not been fully clarified. We investigated the influence of hyperglycemia on arterial stiffness using the cardio‐ankle vascular index (CAVI), which is a new method for estimating arterial stiffness.Materials and Methods CAVI values of 52 early‐staged DM patients (duration <5 years, no microangiopathies) were compared with those of 43 age‐matched non‐diabetic (NDM) subjects. The association between CAVI and clinical background factors was evaluated. The effect of glycemic improvement on CAVI was examined in 36 DM patients who were hospitalized for 2 weeks to treat hyperglycemia. CAVI and clinical parameters were measured twice during hospitalization and again after 8 weeks. Additionally, we measured CAVI before and 2 h after breakfast in five DM and five NDM subjects.ResultsThe CAVI of DM patients was significantly higher than that of NDM subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that neither hypertension, obesity nor dyslipidemia, but aging and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were significantly related to CAVI elevation. The CAVI, HbA1c and total cholesterol (TC) had significantly improved. Improvement of CAVI was significantly associated with HbA1c improvement. In contrast, no significant association was observed between the improvements of TC and CAVI. CAVI values before and after breakfast did not change significantly.Conclusions CAVI elevation seems to be a sensitive arteriosclerotic marker, which is closely associated with hyperglycemia and improved by glycemic control.01/2013; 4(1):82-7. DOI:10.1111/j.2040-1124.2012.00229.x
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (NIH), a primary marker of obstructive sleep apnea, has increasingly been linked with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between NIH and arterial stiffness as measured according to the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) based on cardiovascular risk factors in a Japanese community-dwelling population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Toon city among 684 men and 1,241 women 30-79 years of age. The severity of NIH was defined as mild or moderate-to-severe according to five or 15 events/hour on the 3% oxygen desaturation index (ODI), respectively. Increased arterial stiffness was diagnosed according to a CAVI of ≥9. Results: The number of subjects with no, mild and moderate-to-severe NIH was 1,348 (70%), 451 (23%) and 126 (7%), respectively. Increased arterial stiffness was detected in 21.9% of the participants. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of severe NIH related to an increased CAVI in comparison with a 3% ODI of ＜5 was 1.36 (0.82-2.23). The stratified logistic regression analysis showed that the multivariable-adjusted OR of severe NIH for an increased CAVI was remarkably increased in the individuals with a BMI of ≥25 (OR=2.53, 1.08-5.96; p=0.03). An interaction test showed a trend for an overweight status to be a modifier of the association between OSA and increased arterial stiffness (p=0.05). Conclusions: NIH has a tendency to promote increased arterial stiffness as measured according to the CAVI, especially in overweight subjects.Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 07/2014; 21(12). DOI:10.5551/jat.24505 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Thyroid hormone is associated with arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in hypothyroid disease. The relationship of thyroid hormone level to cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and left ventricular diastolic function, however, remains unclear in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods and Results: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 83 patients with untreated subclinical hypothyroidism and compared them with 83 randomly selected controls from health check-ups. Log N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness were measured. In addition, we measured early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') in 43 participants with subclinical hypothyroidism and in 40 controls. When compared with the control group, patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had higher logNT-proBNP (1.9±0.5 vs. 1.7±0.3pg/ml, P<0.05), CRP (0.22±0.04 vs. 0.09±0.06mg/dl, P<0.05), and CAVI (8.8±1.7 vs. 7.8±1.4, P<0.001) and lower E' (5.8±1.7 vs. 7.5±2.1cm/s, P<0.001). CAVI was significantly associated with logNT-proBNP, CRP and E' in the subclinical hypothyroidism group. Conclusions: High logNT-proBNP was associated with a raised CAVI in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events related to arterial stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.Circulation Journal 04/2014; 78(6). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-13-1556 · 3.69 Impact Factor