Determinants of Hypercapnia in Obese Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis of Cohort Studies
ABSTRACT Inconsistent information exists about factors associated with daytime hypercapnia in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We systematically evaluated these factors in this population.
We included studies evaluating the association between clinical and physiologic variables and daytime hypercapnia (Paco(2), >or= 45 mm Hg) in obese patients (body mass index [BMI], >or= 30 kg/m(2)) with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], >or= 5) and with a < 15% prevalence of COPD. Two investigators conducted independent literature searches using Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus until July 31, 2008. The association between individual factors and hypercapnia was expressed as the mean difference (MD). Random effects models were used to account for heterogeneity.
Fifteen studies (n = 4,250) fulfilled the selection criteria. Daytime hypercapnia was present in 788 patients (19%). Age and gender were not associated with hypercapnia. Patients with hypercapnia had higher BMI (MD, 3.1 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 4.4) and AHI (MD, 12.5; 95% CI, 6.6 to 18.4) than eucapnic patients. Patients with hypercapnia had lower percent predicted FEV(1) (MD, -11.2; 95% CI, -15.7 to -6.8), lower percent predicted vital capacity (MD, -8.1; 95% CI, -11.3 to -4.9), and lower percent predicted total lung capacity (MD, -6.4; 95% CI, -10.0 to -2.7). FEV(1)/FVC percent predicted was not different between hypercapnic and eucapnic patients (MD, -1.7; 95% CI, -4.1 to 0.8), but mean overnight pulse oximetric saturation was significantly lower in hypercapnic patients (MD, -4.9; 95% CI, -7.0 to -2.7).
In obese patients with OSA and mostly without COPD, daytime hypercapnia was associated with severity of OSA, higher BMI levels, and degree of restrictive chest wall mechanics. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in patients with these factors, as early recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes.
SourceAvailable from: Ahmed Salem BaHammam[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in a large sample of Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This prospective observational study consisted of 1693 patients who were diagnosed to have sleep-disordered breathing using type I attended polysomnography (PSG) between January 2002 and December 2012 in the University Sleep Disorders Center (USDC) at King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Out of 1693 OSA patients, OHS was identified in 144 (8.5%) (women 66.7%). Compared with the pure OSA patients, the OHS patients were significantly older (57.4±13.4 years versus 46.8±13.7 years), had a higher body mass index (44.6±10.8 versus 35.7±9.2 kg/m2), a higher daytime partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (56.5±12.7 versus 41.6±6.7 mmHg), a longer duration of nocturnal oxygen saturation (nSaO2) <90% (71.0±34.3 versus 10.5±20.5 minutes), and a higher apnea hypopnea index (68.2±47.1 versus 46.5±34.1 events/hour). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum bicarbonate (odds ratio [OR]=1.17, p=0.0001, confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.25), and duration of nSaO2 <90% (OR=1.05, p=0.0001, CI=1.04-1.06) were predictors of OHS. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is common among Saudi OSA patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Center. Serum bicarbonate and duration of nSaO2 <90% are independent predictors of OHS among patients with OSA.Saudi medical journal 02/2015; 36(2):181-9. DOI:10.15537/smj.2015.2.9991 · 0.55 Impact Factor
Article: Hypoventilation syndromes.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In patients with impaired inspiratory muscle function or altered respiratory system mechanics, an imbalance between load and capacity can arise. The ventilatory control system normally compensates for this by increasing drive to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation levels, thereby keeping arterial CO2 within its normal range. To reduce work of breathing, a pattern of reduced tidal volume and increased respiratory rate occurs. This pattern itself may eventually reduce effective ventilation by increasing dead space ventilation. However, the impact of sleep on breathing and its role in the development of diurnal respiratory failure is often overlooked in this process. Sleep not only reduces respiratory drive, but also diminishes chemoresponsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia creating an environment where significant alterations in oxygenation and CO2 can occur. Acute increases in CO2 load especially during rapid eye movement sleep can initiate the process of bicarbonate retention which further depresses ventilatory responsiveness to CO2. Treatment of hypoventilation needs to be directed toward factors underlying its development. Nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure therapy is the most widely used and reliable strategy currently available to manage hypoventilation syndromes. Although this may not consistently alter respiratory muscle strength or the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, it does appear to reset chemosensitivity by reducing bicarbonate, resulting in a more appropriate ventilatory response to CO2 during wakefulness. Not only is diurnal hypoventilation reduced with noninvasive ventilation, but quality of life, functional capacity and survival are also improved. However, close attention to how therapy is set up and used are key factors in achieving clinical benefits. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4: 1639-1676, 2014.
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ABSTRACT: Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is not a routine test in sleep laboratories due to its invasive nature. Therefore, the diagnosis of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is underestimated. We aimed to evaluate the differences in subjects with OHS and pure obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine clinical predictors of OHS in obese subjects. Demographics, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, polysomnographic data, ABG, spirometric measurements, and serum bicarbonate levels were recorded. Of 152 obese subjects with OSA (79 females/73 males, mean age of 50.3 ± 10.6 y, BMI of 40.1 ± 5.6 kg/m(2), 51.9% with severe OSA), 42.1% (n = 64) had OHS. Subjects with OHS had higher BMI (P = .02), neck circumference (P < .001), waist circumference (P < .001), waist/hip ratio (P = .02), Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores (P = .036), ABG and serum bicarbonate levels (P < .001), apnea-hypopnea index (P = .01), oxygen desaturation index (P < .001), and total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (P < .001) compared with subjects with pure OSA (n = 88). They also had lower daytime PaO2 (P < .001), sleep efficiency (P = .032), mean SpO2 (P < .001), and nadir SpO2 (P < .001) . Serum bicarbonate levels and nadir SpO2 were the only independent predictive factors for OHS. A serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 76.6%, specificity of 74.6%, positive predictive value of 54.5%, negative predictive value of 88.9%). A nadir SpO2 of < 80% as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 54.5%, positive predictive value of 56.9%, negative predictive value of 81.4%). When we used a serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L and/or a nadir SpO2 of < 80% as a screening measure, only 3 of 64 subjects with OHS were missed. Serum bicarbonate level and nadir saturation were independent predictive factors for the diagnosis of OHS. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises Inc.Respiratory care 01/2015; 60(5). DOI:10.4187/respcare.03733 · 1.84 Impact Factor