Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China.
ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals worldwide. In North America and Europe, T. gondii is highly clonal, consisting of three distinct lineages (Types I, II and III), whereas in South America, T. gondii is highly diverse with a few lineages expanded in the population. However, there is limited data on the diversity of T. gondii in Asia. Here we report the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations in China using the multilocus PCR-RFLP. A total of 17 T. gondii isolates from humans (3 strains), sheep (1 strain), pigs (5 strains) and cats (8 strains) were typed at 10 genetic markers including 9 nuclear loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2 and an apicoplast locus Apico. Four genotypes were revealed, including three previously reported and one new genotype. Three isolates belong to the clonal Type I lineage, one isolate belongs to the clonal Type II lineage, and the rest 13 isolates are grouped into two genotypes. This is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations in China using a number of genetic markers, which has implications for the studies of population genetic structures of T. gondii, as well as for the prevention and control of T. gondii infections in humans and animals in China.
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies found that isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil were biologically and genetically different from those in North America and Europe. However, to date only a small number of isolates have been analysed from different animal hosts in Brazil. In the present study DNA samples of 46 T. gondii isolates from cats in 11 counties in São Paulo state, Brazil were genetically characterised using 10 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico. An additional marker, CS3, that locates on chromosome VIIa and has previously been shown to be linked to acute virulence of T. gondii was also used to determine its association to virulence in mice. Genotyping of these 46 isolates revealed a high genetic diversity with 20 genotypes but no clonal Type I, II or III lineage was found. Two of the 46 isolates showed mixed infections. Combining genotyping data in this study with recent reported results from chickens, dogs and cats in Brazil (total 125 isolates) identified 48 genotypes and 26 of these genotypes had single isolates. Four of the 48 genotypes with multiple isolates identified from different hosts and locations are considered the common clonal lineages in Brazil. These lineages are designated as Types BrI, BrII, BrIII and BrIV. These results indicate that the T. gondii population in Brazil is highly diverse with a few successful clonal lineages expanded into wide geographical areas. In contrast to North America and Europe, where the Type II clonal lineage is overwhelmingly predominant, no Type II strain was identified from the 125 Brazil isolates. Analysis of mortality rates in infected mice indicates that Type BrI is highly virulent, Type BrIII is non-virulent, whilst Type BrII and BrIV lineages are intermediately virulent. In addition, allele types at the CS3 locus are strongly linked to mouse-virulence of the parasite. Thus, T. gondii has an epidemic population structure in Brazil and the major lineages have different biological traits.International Journal for Parasitology 05/2008; 38(5):561-9. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Herein we characterized various genetic markers and the biological behavior of a natural recombinant strain of Toxoplasma gondii (P-Br). From nine genetic markers analyzed, three (B1, ROP1, and SAG1) and three (cS10-A6, GRA6, and SAG3) markers belong to parasites from the type I and type III lineages, respectively. The SAG2 and L363 loci were shown to be type I-III chimera alleles. The cB2l-4 microsatellite marker showed a unique haplotype. The P-Br strain presented low virulence in the acute phase of infection and was cystogenic during the chronic infection. The interleukin 12/gamma interferon axis and inducible nitric oxide synthase were main determinants of resistance during the acute infection with the P-Br strain. As opposed to infection with the type II strain of T. gondii (ME-49), peroral infection with the P-Br strain led only to a light inflammatory infiltrate and no major lesions in the intestine of the C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the BALB/c (resistant to ME-49) and C57BL/6 (susceptible to ME-49) mice were shown, respectively, to be more susceptible and more resistant to cyst formation and toxoplasmic encephalitis when infected with the P-Br strain. Further, the C57BL/KsJ and DBA2/J congenic strains containing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype "d" were more resistant than the parental strains (C57BL/6 and DBA1/J), when infected with the ME-49 but not with the P-Br strain. Together, our results indicate that resistance to cyst formation and toxoplasmic encephalitis induced during infection with P-Br is not primarily controlled by the MHC haplotype d, as previously reported for type II strains of T. gondii.Infection and Immunity 12/2003; 71(11):6392-401. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state) from Brazil, South America was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 39 (46.4%) of 84 chickens with titers of 1:10 in one, 1:20 in two, 1:40 in four, 1:80 in seven, 1:160 in five, 1:320 in six, 1:640 in eight and > or =1:1280 in six. Hearts and brains of 45 chickens with titers of 1:20 or less were pooled and fed to two T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 39 chickens with titers of 1:10 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. One cat fed tissues from 31 chickens with titers of less than 1:10 from Rio Grande do Sul shed T. gondii oocysts. T. gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from 33 chickens with MAT titers of 1:20 or higher. All infected mice from 10 isolates died of toxoplasmosis. All 34 isolates (15 from Pará, 19 from Rio Grande do Sul) were genotyped using 11 genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, a new SAG2 and Apico. Eleven genotypes were revealed for Pará isolates and seven genotypes for Rio Grande do Sul. No genotype was shared between the two geographical locations. These data suggest that T. gondii isolates are highly diverse and genetically distinct between the two different regions in Brazil that are 3500 km apart.Veterinary Parasitology 02/2007; 143(2):182-8. · 2.38 Impact Factor