Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China.
ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals worldwide. In North America and Europe, T. gondii is highly clonal, consisting of three distinct lineages (Types I, II and III), whereas in South America, T. gondii is highly diverse with a few lineages expanded in the population. However, there is limited data on the diversity of T. gondii in Asia. Here we report the genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations in China using the multilocus PCR-RFLP. A total of 17 T. gondii isolates from humans (3 strains), sheep (1 strain), pigs (5 strains) and cats (8 strains) were typed at 10 genetic markers including 9 nuclear loci SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2 and an apicoplast locus Apico. Four genotypes were revealed, including three previously reported and one new genotype. Three isolates belong to the clonal Type I lineage, one isolate belongs to the clonal Type II lineage, and the rest 13 isolates are grouped into two genotypes. This is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations in China using a number of genetic markers, which has implications for the studies of population genetic structures of T. gondii, as well as for the prevention and control of T. gondii infections in humans and animals in China.
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ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity of T. gondii is a concern of many studies, due to the biological and epidemiological diversity of this parasite. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 17 (ROP17) gene among T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions. The rop17 gene was amplified and sequenced from 10 T. gondii strains, and phylogenetic relationship among these T. gondii strains was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. The partial rop17 gene sequences were 1375 bp in length and A+T contents varied from 49.45% to 50.11% among all examined T. gondii strains. Sequence analysis identified 33 variable nucleotide positions (2.1%), 16 of which were identified as transitions. Phylogeny reconstruction based on rop17 gene data revealed two major clusters which could readily distinguish Type I and Type II strains. Analyses of sequence variations in nucleotides and amino acids among these strains revealed high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphisms (>1), indicating that rop17 shows signs of positive selection. This study demonstrated the existence of slightly high sequence variability in the rop17 gene sequences among T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical regions, suggesting that rop17 gene may represent a new genetic marker for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates.TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:349325.
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ABSTRACT: Background Synanthropic rats and mice share the same environment with humans and play an important role in epidemiology of toxoplasmosis; however, there is limited information about prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in synanthropic rats and mice in China.FindingsIn the present study, the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii naturally infected synanthropic rodents (Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus) were investigated in the urban area of Xuzhou city, Eastern China between June 2013 and August 2014. DNA from the brain of each animal was prepared and screened by specific PCR assay targeting 35-fold repeated B1 gene (B1-PCR). PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped by multi-locus PCR-RFLP. Overall, out of 123 synanthropic rodents, 29 samples were positive by B1 gene-targeted PCR (23.6%). Of these, 7 out of 31 (22.3%) M. musculus were positive, whereas the positive rate of R. norvegicus was 23.9% (22/92). Multi-locus PCR-RFLP analysis reveals that seven PCR-positive samples were completely genotyped and they were identified as type China 1 (ToxoDB# 9).Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular detection and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in synanthropic rodents in Eastern China. The results of the present study showed a high infection pressure of T. gondii exists in the environment and synanthropic rodents infected by T. gondii may be an important source of infection for cats and other animals.Parasites & Vectors 12/2014; 7(1):591. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a wide variety of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Limited information about T. gondii infection in bats is available in China. The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in bats in Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces, China.Methods During May 2005 to August 2013, bats were sampled from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi, and Guangdong provinces, China, and liver tissues were collected for the detection of T. gondii by a nested PCR targeting the B1 gene. The positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5¿-and 3¿-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).ResultsA total of 626 bats representing 10 species were examined for T. gondii infection, 38 (6.1%) were tested positive with by PCR, 8 positive DNA samples were completely genotyped, of which 3 samples (2 from Cynopterus sphinx, and 1 from Murina leucogaster) represented ToxoDB#10, and 5 samples (2 from Murina leucogaster, 2 from Myotis chinensis, and 1 from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) belonged to ToxoDB#9 (http://toxodb.org/toxo/).Conclusions The present study revealed an overall T. gondii prevalence of 6.1% in bats from Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces in China, and reported two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and #10) having a wide geographical distribution in China. These results provide new genetic information about T. gondii infection in bats, and have implications for better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. gondii in China and elsewhere.Parasites & Vectors 12/2014; 7(1):558. · 3.25 Impact Factor