Alpha interferon induces long-lasting refractoriness of JAK-STAT signaling in the mouse liver through induction of USP18/UBP43.
ABSTRACT Recombinant alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is used for the treatment of viral hepatitis and some forms of cancer. During these therapies IFN-alpha is injected once daily or every second day for several months. Recently, the long-acting pegylated IFN-alpha (pegIFN-alpha) has replaced standard IFN-alpha in therapies of chronic hepatitis C because it is more effective, supposedly by inducing a long-lasting activation of IFN signaling pathways. IFN signaling in cultured cells, however, becomes refractory within hours, and little is known about the pharmacodynamic effects of continuously high IFN-alpha serum concentrations. To investigate the behavior of the IFN system in vivo, we repeatedly injected mice with IFN-alpha and analyzed its effects in the liver. Within hours after the first injection, IFN-alpha signaling became refractory to further stimulation. The negative regulator SOCS1 was rapidly upregulated and likely responsible for early termination of IFN-alpha signaling. For long-lasting refractoriness, neither SOCS1 nor SOCS3 were instrumental. Instead, we identified the inhibitor USP18/UBP43 as the key mediator. Our results indicate that the current therapeutic practice using long-lasting pegIFN-alpha is not well adapted to the intrinsic properties of the IFN system. Targeting USP18 expression may allow to exploit the full therapeutic potential of recombinant IFN-alpha.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dong-Er Zhang, Aug 27, 2014
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Article: Alpha interferon induces long-lasting refractoriness of JAK-STAT signaling in the mouse liver through induction of USP18/UBP43.
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ABSTRACT: Protein modification by the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 is an interferon (IFN) effector system, which plays a major role in antiviral defense. ISG15 modification is counteracted by the isopeptidase USP18, a major negative regulator of IFN signaling, which was also shown to exert its regulatory function in an isopeptidase-indepen-dent manner. To dissect enzymatic and nonenzymatic functions of USP18 in vivo, we generated knock-in mice (USP18 C61A/C61AProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2015; 112(5). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1412881112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in cells but only a few have been well characterized. In these cases, lncRNAs have been shown to be key regulators of several cellular processes. Therefore, there is a great need to understand the function of more lncRNAs and their regulation in response to stimuli. Interferon (IFN) is a key molecule in the cellular antiviral response. IFN binding to its receptor activates transcription of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that function as potent antivirals. In addition, several ISGs are positive or negative regulators of the IFN pathway. This is essential to ensure a strong antiviral response and a later return of the cell to homeostasis. As the ISGs described to date are coding genes, we sought to determine whether IFN also regulates the expression of long non-coding ISGs. To this aim, we used RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptome of control and HuH7 cells treated with IFNα2. The results show that IFN-treatment regulates the expression of several unknown non-coding transcripts. We have validated two lncRNAs upregulated after treatment with different doses of type I IFNα2 in different cells or with type III IFNλ. These lncRNAs were also induced by influenza and vesicular stomatitis virus mutants unable to block the IFN response, but not by several wild-type lytic viruses tested. These lncRNA genes were named lncISG15 and lncBST2 as they are located close to ISGs ISG15 and BST2, respectively. Interestingly, inhibition experiments showed that lncBST2 is a positive regulator of BST2. Therefore lncBST2 has been renamed BISPR, from BST2 IFN-stimulated positive regulator. Our results may have therapeutic implications as lncBST2/BISPR, but also lncISG15 and their coding neighbors, are increased in cells infected with hepatitis C virus and in the liver of infected patients. These results allow us to hypothesize that several lncRNAs could be activated by IFN to control the potency of the antiviral IFN response.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:655. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00655
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ABSTRACT: We analysed gene expression microarray data from whole blood samples from 228 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients either untreated or treated with one of three alternative commonly used interferon beta (IFNβ) disease modifying drugs - Avonex(®) (1x weekly), Betaseron(®) (every second day) or Rebif(®) (3x weekly). Patient injections were not timed to coordinate sample collections, thus providing a global transcriptomic profile for each population of patients studied. Three hundred and fifty one genes were significantly differentially expressed by at least one of the IFNβ drugs. Despite the different drug sources with distinct injection and dosage protocols, a striking similarity was found in the identity and functional classes of the differentially expressed genes induced. Using the 25-most upregulated genes, we defined a robust IFNβ gene expression signature that quantifies the IFN activation state per blood sample collected irrespective of the type of IFNβ therapy. This 25-gene signature also defined basal IFN activation states amongst untreated MS patients, which differed amongst individuals but remained relatively constant per patient with time. The maximum drug-induced IFN-activation state was similar for all three drugs despite a 1.7 to 2.0-fold diminished average effect for Avonex. This and a more erratic effect of Avonex per patient across longitudinal measurements is likely a result of its reduced injection frequency. In summary, we have defined a robust blood-derived type I IFN gene signature from MS patients. This signature could potentially serve to generically quantify the systemic Type I IFN activation status for any other clinical manifestation, inclusive of other autoimmune diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.Human Molecular Genetics 02/2015; 24(11). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv071 · 6.68 Impact Factor