Caffeine inhibition of ionotropic glycine receptors.

Center for Neuroscience, 124 Sherman Hall, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.
The Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.54). 07/2009; 587(Pt 16):4063-75. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.174797
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We found that caffeine is a structural analogue of strychnine and a competitive antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors (GlyRs). Docking simulations indicate that caffeine and strychnine may bind to similar sites at the GlyR. The R131A GlyR mutation, which reduces strychnine antagonism without suppressing activation by glycine, also reduces caffeine antagonism. GlyR subtypes have differing caffeine sensitivity. Tested against the EC(50) of each GlyR subtype, the order of caffeine potency (IC(50)) is: alpha2beta (248 +/- 32 microm) alpha3beta (255 +/- 16 microm) > alpha4beta (517 +/- 50 microm) > alpha1beta(837 +/- 132 microm). However, because the alpha3beta GlyR is more than 3-fold less sensitive to glycine than any of the other GlyR subtypes, this receptor is most effectively blocked by caffeine. The glycine dose-response curves and the effects of caffeine indicate that amphibian retinal ganglion cells do not express a plethora of GlyR subtypes and are dominated by the alpha1beta GlyR. Comparing the effects of caffeine on glycinergic spontaneous and evoked IPSCs indicates that evoked release elevates the glycine concentration at some synapses whereas summation elicits evoked IPSCs at other synapses. Caffeine serves to identify the pharmacophore of strychnine and produces near-complete inhibition of glycine receptors at concentrations commonly employed to stimulate ryanodine receptors.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review is focused on the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of steroids influencing the activities of the central and peripheral nervous systems with regard to their concentrations in body fluids and tissues in various stages of human life like the fetal development or pregnancy. The data summarized in this review shows that DHEA and its unconjugated and sulfated metabolites are physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant in modulating numerous ion channels and participate in vital functions of the human organism. DHEA and its unconjugated and sulfated metabolites including 5α/β-reduced androstane steroids participate in various physiological and pathophysiological processes like the management of GnRH cyclic release, regulation of glandular and neurotransmitter secretions, maintenance of glucose homeostasis on one hand and insulin insensitivity on the other hand, control of skeletal muscle and smooth muscle activities including vasoregulation, promotion of tolerance to ischemia and other neuroprotective effects. In respect of prevalence of steroid sulfates over unconjugated steroids in the periphery and the opposite situation in the CNS, the sulfated androgens and androgen metabolites reach relevance in peripheral organs. The unconjugated androgens and estrogens are relevant in periphery and so much the more in the CNS due to higher concentrations of most unconjugated steroids in the CNS tissues than in circulation and peripheral organs.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.05.006 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A number of recent studies from as diverse fields as plant-pollinator interactions, analyses of caffeine as an environmental pollutant, and the ability of caffeine to provide protection against neurodegenerative diseases have generated interest in understanding the actions of caffeine in invertebrates. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of caffeine on behavior and its molecular mechanisms in invertebrates. Caffeine appears to have similar effects on locomotion and sleep in both invertebrates and mammals. Furthermore, as in mammals, caffeine appears to have complex effects on learning and memory. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects may differ between invertebrates and vertebrates. While caffeine's ability to cause release of intracellular calcium stores via ryanodine receptors and its actions as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been clearly established in invertebrates, its ability to interact with invertebrate adenosine receptors remains an important open question. Initial studies in insects and mollusks suggest an interaction between caffeine and the dopamine signaling pathway; more work needs to be done to understand the mechanisms by which caffeine influences signaling via biogenic amines. As of yet, little is known about whether other actions of caffeine in vertebrates, such as its effects on GABAA and glycine receptors, are conserved. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine remains to be elucidated. Overall behavioral responses to caffeine appear to be conserved amongst organisms; however, we are just beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying its effects across animal phyla.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 10/2013; 71(8). DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1497-8 · 5.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clinical stimulation of preterm infant breathing with methylxanthines like caffeine and theophylline can evoke seizures. It is unknown whether underlying neuronal hyperexcitability involves the rhythmogenic inspiratory active pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) in the brainstem or preBötC-driven motor networks. Inspiratory-related preBötC interneuronal plus spinal (cervical/phrenic) or cranial hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal bursting was studied in newborn rat en bloc brainstem spinal cords and brainstem slices, respectively. Non-respiratory bursting perturbed inspiratory cervical nerve activity in en bloc models at >0.25 mM theophylline or caffeine. Rhythm in the exposed preBötC of transected en bloc preparations was less perturbed by 10 mM theophylline than cervical root bursting which was more affected than phrenic nerve activity. In the preBötC of slices, even 10 mM methylxanthine did not evoke seizure-like bursting whereas >1 mM masked XII rhythm via large amplitude 1-10 Hz oscillations. Blocking A-type γ-aminobutyric (GABAA) receptors evoked seizure-like cervical activity whereas in slices neither XII nor preBötC rhythm were disrupted. Methylxanthines (2.5-10 mM), but not blockade of adenosine receptors, phosphodiesterase-4 or the sarcoplasmatic/endoplasmatic reticulum ATPase countered inspiratory depression by muscimol-evoked GABAA receptor activation that was associated with a hyperpolarization and input resistance decrease silencing preBötC neurons in slices. The latter blockers did neither affect preBötC or cranial/spinal motor network bursting nor evoke seizure-like activity or mask corresponding methylxanthine-evoked discharges. Our findings show that methylxanthine-evoked hyperexcitability originates from motor networks, leaving preBötC activity largely unaffected, and suggest that GABAA receptors contribute to methylxanthine-evoked seizure-like perturbation of spinal motoneurons whereas non-respiratory XII motoneuron oscillations are of different origin.
    Neuroscience 10/2013; 255. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.09.058 · 3.33 Impact Factor


Available from