Pre-hospital care in Nigeria: a country without emergency medical services.
ABSTRACT Efficient pre-hospital transport (emergency medical services, EMS) is associated with improved outcomes in road traffic injuries (RTI). This study aims to discover possible interventions in the existing mode of transport.
Persons bringing all RTI victims to the Emergency room (ER) over a 4-year period and the injury arrival intervals were noted prospectively.
There were 2,624 patients (1,886 males and 738 females); only 2,046 (78%) had clear documentations of three categories of persons bringing victims to ER: Relatives (REL, 1,081, 52.83%); Police/Federal Road Safety Corps (P/F, 827, 40.42%) and Bystanders (BS, 138, 6.74%). No intervention was provided during transport: Within 1 hour, 986 victims (48.2% of 2,046) arrived ERbrought by P/F (448, 21.9%), REL (439, 21.5% of 2,046), and BS (99, 4.8%). These figures, in each instance, represent 40.6 % of total victims brought by REL; 54.2% by P/F and 71.7% by BS. However, after 6 hours, REL were the main active group as they brought 94.5% (359 of 380) patients of this period. In 91 victims (4.4%) the injury arrival time was not captured.
This study has identified three groups of persons involved in pre-hospital transport with nearly 50% getting to ER within 1 hour without any intervention or prior notification of ER. Absence of EMS obscures pre-hospital death records. The P/F responsible for only 40% of transport should be trained and equipped to offer basic trauma life support (BTLS). The REL and BS (both responsible for 60% of transport) represent a pool of volunteers for BTLS to be trained.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. METHODS: We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. RESULTS: Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria's per capita GDP. CONCLUSIONS: Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization).BMC Public Health 09/2012; 12(1):786. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport is associated with improved outcome in trauma patients. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on prehospital transport of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and its relation to mortality. To determine if prehospital transportation is a predictor of mortality in patients with SCI in Nigeria. Prospective cohort study Prehospital transport related conditions, injury arrival intervals and persons that brought patients with SCI to the casualty were noted. Data analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and multiple logistic regressions. Mortality within 6 weeks on admission Results: 168 patients with SCI presented in the casualty during this review period. Majority (67.9%) presented after 24 hrs of the injury. Majority (58.3%) were conveyed into the casualty by their relatives. Salon car (54.2%) was the most common mode of transportation where majority (55.4%) laid on their back during the transfer. Majority (75%) of the patients had multiple hospital presentation before reporting in our casualty. The mortality observed was 16.7%. Multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, gender, and means of transportation revealed that age (OR= 63.41, 95% CI= 9.24-43.53), crouched position during transfer (OR= 23.52, 95% CI= 7.26-74.53), presentation after 24 hrs (OR=5.48, 95% CI=3.20-16.42) and multiple hospital presentation (OR= 7.94, 95% CI= 1.89-33.43) were associated with mortality within 6 weeks of admission. A well-organized and efficient prehospital transport would reduce mortality in spinal cord injured patients. Public enlightenment campaign on factors that could reduce road traffic injury would help reduce mortality.The journal of spinal cord medicine 05/2011; 34(3):308-11. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Road traffic injuries (RTIs) and attendant fatalities on Nigerian roads have been on an increasing trend over the past three decades. Mortality from RTIs in Nigeria is estimated to be 162 deaths/100,000 population. This study aims to compare and identify best prehospital trauma care practices in Nigeria and some other African countries where prehospital services operate. METHODS: A review of secondary data, grey literature, and pertinent published articles using a conceptual framework to assess: (1) policies; (2) structures; (3) first responders; (4) communication facilities; (5) transport and ambulance facilities, and (6) roadside emergency trauma units. RESULTS: There is no national prehospital trauma care system (PTCS) in Nigeria. The lack of a national emergency health policy is a factor in this absence. The Nigerian Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) mainly has been responsible for prehospital services. South Africa, Zambia, Kenya, and Ghana have improved prehospital services in Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Commercial drivers, laypersons, military, police, a centrally controlled communication network, and government ambulance services are feasible delivery models that can be incorporated into the Nigerian prehospital system. Prehospital trauma services have been useful in reducing morbidities and mortalities from traffic injuries, and appropriate implementation of this study's recommendations may reduce this burden in Nigeria. Adeloye D . Prehospital trauma care systems: potential role toward reducing morbidities and mortalities from road traffic injuries in Nigeria. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(6):1-7.Prehospital and disaster medicine: the official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the World Association for Emergency and Disaster Medicine in association with the Acute Care Foundation 10/2012;