The importance of norovirus as a cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks is well documented, but the role of norovirus in sporadic acute severe gastroenteritis is not so well established. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis among hospitalized children.
A prospective study was conducted in children less than 5 years old, admitted with acute gastroenteritis between January 2005 and January 2008 to the Pediatrics Department of the Universitary Hospital, Albacete, Spain. Demographic and clinical data were collected. A stool sample from each child was screened for enteropathogenic bacteria and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for rotavirus, astrovirus, norovirus, and sapovirus and by immunochromatographic method for enteric adenoviruses.
Norovirus was the second most frequent pathogen after rotavirus, being detected in 61 (17.3%) of the 352 children enrolled, in 29 of them (8.2%) as single agent. Mixed infections involving other viruses or bacteria were present in 52.4% of norovirus positive samples, a nosocomial source of infection was demonstrated in 17.2%. Norovirus infection was more prevalent in winter and affected mainly children less than 2 years of age. Vomiting was present in 68% and fever in 48.3% of cases, 3 children had nonfebrile seizures. Compared with rotavirus enteritis, norovirus infection was slightly less severe (in terms of severity score and need of intravenous rehydration) and fever was less frequent.
Norovirus was a frequent cause of acute severe sporadic gastroenteritis in children representing the second etiologic agent after rotavirus.
"Similarly, for adenovirus positive patients, fever, dehydration, and abdominal pain were low compared to other studies with moderate symptoms    . However, as regards norovirus positive patients, fever, dehydration, and abdominal pain were also low, but other studies with norovirus showed moderate to high clinical symptoms   . Thus, the differences "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0-36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality.
International Journal of Microbiology 06/2015; 2015:1-5. DOI:10.1155/2015/685821
"The overall severity score was significantly higher for rotavirus gastroenteritis than for norovirus infections. Similar results have been reported in Spain, Poland, and Libya [3,37,43]. Those studies showed that rotavirus-infected children experienced longer periods of diarrhea and were more severely dehydrated than children infected with norovirus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Acute gastroenteritis is a serious cause of child mortality and morbidity in resource-limited countries. A viral etiology is most common, and rotavirus and norovirus are reported to be the leading causative agents. There are still few epidemiological data on the simultaneous occurrence of these viruses in Morocco. The aim of this study was to provide useful epidemiological data on the gastroenteritis associated with rotavirus and norovirus among children aged less than 5 years.
From January to December 2011, 335 samples were tested for rotavirus and norovirus using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-multiplex PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. Partial sequences of the norovirus were phylogenetically analyzed to determine the genotype.
The overall rates of rotavirus and norovirus infections were 26.6% and 16.1%, respectively. Mixed viral infections were detected in 9 of 335 stool specimens (2.7%).The most common genotype combination in the rotavirus strains was G1[P8] (51.7%), followed by G2[P4] (10.1%), G2[P8] (4.5%), G9[P8] (3.4%), G4[P8] (3.4%), and G1[P6] (2.3%). Among patients positive for norovirus, 42 (77.8%) tested positive for GII and 12 (22.2%) for GI. Thirty-three (78.6%) of the norovirus GII-positive cases were successfully characterized. Genotype GII.4 was the most prevalent (n = 27; 81.8%), followed by GII.3 (n = 2; 6.1%), GII.13 (n = 2; 6.1%), GII.16 (n = 1; 3%), and GII.17 (n = 1; 3%).
This study suggests that in Morocco, norovirus is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis after rotavirus, but further enteric viruses need to be integrated in the surveillance system so that a conclusion could be drawn.
"This is probably due to a lower frequency of high-grade fever and evacuations in norovirus infected children. Similar results were found by Junquera et al.  in Spain and by Narkeviciute and Tamusauskaite  in Lithuania. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized Polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. The prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2009 through June 2010. Stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group A and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic test and for norovirus with EIA assay. Single norovirus infection was found in 35/242 (14.5%) patients and in a further 5 (2.1%) children as co-infection with rotavirus. Overall, norovirus was detected in 16.5% of stool specimens. Norovirus infections tended to peak from October to November and again from February to March. In autumn months and in February, the proportion of norovirus gastroenteritis cases was equal or even surpassed those of rotavirus origin. Both norovirus and rotavirus infections most commonly affected children between 12 and 23 months of age. The low-grade or no fever was significantly more common in children infected with norovirus (94.3%) compared to rotavirus cases (52.9%). Overall, norovirus gastroenteritis was less severe than rotavirus disease with regard to 20-point severity scale (p < 0.05). Noroviruses have emerged as a relevant cause of acute gastroenteritis in Polish children. There is a great need for introducing routine norovirus testing of hospitalized children with gastroenteritis.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2011; 31(4):417-22. DOI:10.1007/s10096-011-1321-z · 2.67 Impact Factor
Deok-Jin Jang, Hyoung F Kim, Jae-Hoon Sim, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
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