Prevalence and trends of severe obesity among US children and adolescents.

Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
Academic pediatrics (Impact Factor: 2.23). 07/2009; 9(5):322-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2009.04.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the extent to which the 2007 definitions for severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] > or = 99th percentile for age and gender) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 40kg/m(2)) affects different groups of American children and adolescents and has increased over time.
Analysis of nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II, III, and 1999-2004; 12 384 US children and adolescents ages 2 to 19 years were included in the analysis. Outcome measures were the proportion of subjects with severe and morbid obesity, with age, gender, race, and poverty-income ratio (PIR) as key variables.
In 1999-2004, 3.8% of children 2 to 19 years old had a BMI in the > or = 99th percentile, with higher prevalence among boys than girls (4.6% vs 2.9%; P < .001). Prevalence was highest among blacks, 5.7% and Mexican Americans, 5.2%, compared with whites, 3.1% (P < .001). The prevalence differed by the PIR category as well (4.3% for those with PIR < or = 3 vs 2.5% for those with PIR>3; P=.002). BMI > or = 40kg/m(2) was found in 1.3% of adolescents ages 12 to 19 years, with similar associations with race and poverty. The overall prevalence of BMI > or = 99th percentile has increased by more than 300% since NHANES II (1976), and over 70% since NHANES III (1994) in children 2 to 19 years of age.
Rates of severe childhood obesity have tripled in the last 25 years, with significant differences by race, gender, and poverty. This places demands on health care and community services, especially because the highest rates are among children who are frequently underserved by the health care system.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To explore whether contextual variables attenuate disparities in weight among 18,639 US children and adolescents aged 2 to 18 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 to 2010. Methods: Disparities were assessed using the Symmetrized Renyi Index, a new measure that summarizes disparities in the severity of a disease, as well as the prevalence, across multiple population groups. Propensity score subclassification was used to ensure covariate balance between racial and ethnic subgroups and account for individual-level and contextual covariates. Results: Before propensity score subclassification, significant disparities were evident in the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and the degree of excess weight among overweight/obese children and adolescents. After propensity score subclassification, racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and severity of excess weight were completely attenuated within matched groups, indicating that racial and ethnic differences were explained by social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic and demographic factors. Conclusions: The limited overlap in covariate distributions between various racial/ethnic subgroups warrants further attention in disparities research. The attenuation of disparities within matched groups suggests that social determinants such as neighborhood socioeconomic factors may engender disparities in weight among US children and adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Annals of Epidemiology 08/2014; 24(10). DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.07.010 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    International journal of cardiology 04/2013; 168(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.03.081 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the nutritional risk in children 2 to 6 y old. The sample consisted of 3058 children enrolled in public and private schools in nine Brazilian cities. The assessment of nutrient intake was based on 1-d data combining direct individual weighing of foods and a food diary. A second evaluation of food consumption was conducted in a subsample to estimate the usual intake. There was low prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin B6 (<0.001%), riboflavin (<0.001%), niacin (<0.001%), thiamin (<0.001%), folate (<0.001%), phosphorus (<0.1%), magnesium (<0.1%), iron (<0.5%), copper (<0.001%), zinc (<0.5%), and selenium (<0.001%). However, 22% of children younger than 4 y and 5% of children older than 4 y consumed fiber quantities larger than the adequate intake. Approximately 30% of the sample consumed more saturated fat than recommended. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin E intake ranged from 15% to 29%. More than 90% of the children had an inadequate vitamin D intake. In children older than 4 y, the prevalence of inadequate calcium intake was approximately 45%. Sodium intake was higher than the upper intake level in 90% of children younger than 4 y and 73% of children older than 4 y. The prevalence of inadequate dietary intake was low for most nutrients. However, fiber, calcium, and vitamin D and E intakes were lower than recommended. Moreover, children consumed large amounts of sodium and saturated fat.
    Nutrition 02/2013; 29(2):405-10. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.06.012 · 3.05 Impact Factor