Homocysteine and Peripheral Arterial Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ABSTRACT To evaluate homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) as compared to unaffected controls, and to review the clinical effects of therapy aimed at lowering homocysteine in PAD patients.
MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched from 1950 to December 2007. We selected observational studies and trials that evaluated Hcy levels in patients with PAD compared to unaffected controls. We also included trials on the effect of Hcy-lowering therapy (folate supplementation) in PAD patients. Continuous outcomes were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis of the weighted mean difference between comparator groups.
We retrieved 33 potentially suitable articles from our search. Meta-analysis of 14 relevant studies showed that Hcy was significantly elevated (pooled mean difference +4.31micromoll; 95% C.I. 1.71, 6.31, p<0.0001 with significant heterogeneity) in patients with PAD compared to controls. As all 14 studies consistently demonstrated raised plasma Hcy levels in PAD patients, the significant heterogeneity in this meta-analysis probably arises from differences in the degree of Hcy elevation. The effect of folate supplementation on PAD was tested in eight clinical trials but clinically important end points were inconsistently reported.
Patients with PAD have significantly higher Hcy levels than unaffected controls. However, we did not find any robust evidence on clinically beneficial effects of folate supplementation in PAD.
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that migraine is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, so that it is increasingly hypothesized that this primary form of headache my be linked to thrombotic diseases by some biological pathways and risk factors. Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing molecule, is now recognized as an independent risk factor for a variety of thrombotic disorders, especially ischemic heart disease and stroke. This article is hence aimed to provide an overview of epidemiological evidence about the association between homocysteine and migraine published in cross-sectional, prospective or interventional studies. Overall, the evidence gathered from cross-sectional studies that measured plasma homocysteine levels suggests that the epidemiological link between the plasma concentration of this biomarker and migraine is very weak, at best. Contradictory evidence emerged from interventional studies, in which treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid or vitamin B supplementation was effective to lower plasma homocysteine and decrease frequency and/or severity of migraine. The association remains largely speculative, however, since it could not be clearly demonstrated that these two biological effects were directly linked. The only study that has assessed homocysteine in cerebrospinal fluid reported that the concentration of this biomarker in migraine patients was significantly increased compared to controls. Although this evidence must be obviously confirmed in larger trials, some putative mechanisms may support a causal link between increased generation of homocysteine in the brain environment and migraine.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 03/2014; 433. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.02.028 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: New data on the epidemiology of peripheral artery disease (PAD) are available, and they should be integrated with previous data. We provide an updated, integrated overview of the epidemiology of PAD, a focused literature review was conducted on the epidemiology of PAD. The PAD results were grouped into symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, and incidence both in the United States and globally, risk factors, progression, coprevalence with other atherosclerotic disease, and association with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The most common symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication, but noninvasive measures, such as the ankle-brachial index, show that asymptomatic PAD is several times more common in the population than intermittent claudication. PAD prevalence and incidence are both sharply age-related, rising >10% among patients in their 60s and 70s. With aging of the global population, it seems likely that PAD will be increasingly common in the future. Prevalence seems to be higher among men than women for more severe or symptomatic disease. The major risk factors for PAD are similar to those for coronary and cerebrovascular disease, with some differences in the relative importance of factors. Smoking is a particularly strong risk factor for PAD, as is diabetes mellitus, and several newer risk markers have shown independent associations with PAD. PAD is strongly associated with concomitant coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. After adjustment for known cardiovascular disease risk factors, PAD is associated with an increased risk of incident coronary and cerebrovascular disease morbidity and mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Circulation Research 04/2015; 116(9):1509-26. DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.303849 · 11.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: The goal of the study was to investigate the relationships between coronary artery disease (CAD) and risk factors, including the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and homocysteine, in Japanese patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Methods: Coronary angiography was performed in 451 patients with PAD, among whom the prevalence and clinical characteristics of CAD were analyzed. A multiple logistic analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between CAD and the risk factors. The relationships between the severity of coronary arterial lesions and the risk factors were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of CAD (≥70% luminal diameter narrowing or a history of CAD) and coronary artery stenosis (≥50%) was 55.9% and 74.1%, respectively, and the rate of CAD (≥70%) with single-, double- and triple-vessel disease was 25.9%, 13.5% and 10.6%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes was higher among the patients with CAD than among those without. The serum levels of hs-CRP, Lp(a), and homocysteine were higher in the patients with CAD, whereas the estimated glomerular filtration rates and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower in these patients. According to the multiple logistic analysis, CAD was related to diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.253; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.137-4.464, p=0.020), hs-CRP (HR: 1.721; 95% CI: 1.030-2.875, p=0.038), Lp(a) (HR: 1.015; 95% CI: 1.001-1.029, p=0.041) and homocysteine (HR: 1.084; 95% CI: 1.012-1.162, p=0.021). Furthermore, diabetes and the D-dimer and LDL-cholesterol levels exhibited significant relationships with the number of stenotic coronary lesions in the stepwise multiple regression analysis (p＜0.05). Conclusions: Diabetes, hs-CRP, Lp(a), homocysteine and lipid abnormalities are critical risk factors for CAD in Japanese patients with PAD.Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 04/2015; 22(4):344-354. DOI:10.5551/jat.25478 · 2.77 Impact Factor