Pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles promotes cerebral microvessel thrombosis: protective effect of a cysteine prodrug l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid.
ABSTRACT Inhaled particulate matter is associated with increased cerebro- and cardiovascular events. However, the systemic mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the relationship between airway and systemic inflammation and pial cerebral venular thrombosis, 24h after intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP; 15 or 30 microg/mouse) or saline (control). Doses of 15 and 30 microg/mouse induced a dose-dependent macrophage and neutrophil influx into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with elevation of total proteins and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), but without IL-6 release. Similarly, in plasma, IL-6 concentrations did not increase but the TEAC was significantly and dose-dependently decreased. The number of platelets and the tail bleeding time were both significantly reduced after exposure to DEP (30 microg). Interestingly, the same dose showed platelet proaggregatory effect in mouse pial cerebral venules. Pretreatment with the cysteine prodrug l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC, 80 mg/kg) 24 and 1h before i.t. DEP (30 microg), abolished the DEP-induced macrophage and neutrophil influx, and the increase of TEAC in BAL. Lung histopathology confirmed the protective effect of OTC on DEP-induced lung inflammation. OTC also reversed the decrease of TEAC concentrations in plasma, the shortening of the bleeding time, and the thrombotic effect of DEP in pial cerebral venules. We conclude that pulmonary exposure to DEP cause oxidative stress responsible, at least partially, for the pulmonary and systemic inflammation and thrombotic events in the pial cerebral microvessels of mice. OTC pretreatment abrogated these effects through its ability to balance oxidant-antioxidant status.
Article: Protective effect of curcumin on pulmonary and cardiovascular effects induced by repeated exposure to diesel exhaust particles in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously demonstrated that single dose exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) causes lung inflammation and peripheral thrombotic events. Here, we exposed mice with repeated doses of DEP (15 µg/animal) every 2(nd) day for 6 days (a total of 4 exposures), and measured several cardiopulmonary endpoints 48 h after the end of the treatments. Moreover, the potential protective effect of curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric) on DEP-induced cardiopulmonary toxicity was assessed. DEP exposure increased macrophage and neutrophil numbers, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and enhanced airway resistance to methacoline measured invasively using Flexivent. DEP also significantly increased plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and TNF α concentrations, systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as the pial arteriolar thrombosis. It also significantly enhanced the plasma D-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Pretreatment with curcumin by oral gavage (45 mg/kg) 1 h before exposure to DEP significantly prevented the influx of inflammatory cells and the increase of TNF α in BAL, and the increased airway resistance caused by DEP. Likewise, curcumin prevented the increase of SBP, CRP, TNF α, D-dimer and PAI-1. The thrombosis was partially but significantly mitigated. In conclusion, repeated exposure to DEP induced lung and systemic inflammation characterized by TNFα release, increased SBP, and accelerated coagulation. Our findings indicate that curcumin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents the release of TNFα and protects against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of DEP.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39554. · 4.09 Impact Factor